Abstract

We report on a vertical adiabatic transition between silica planar waveguides and electro-optic (EO) polymer. Gray-scale lithography was used to pattern a polymer transition with an exponential profile. Excess losses of the order of 1 dB were measured, and good mode matching to simulation was observed. This configuration, which married the advantages of both silica and EO-polymer planar-optic technologies, demonstrates a new technique for fabricating hybrid active devices with high modulation speed, low insertion loss, and complex geometries.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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2001 (2)

M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. H. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, K. Losch, K. Satzke, W. Wischmann, J. Wirth, J. Schneider, J. Bauer, and M. Bauer, Electron. Lett. 36, 89 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, and J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4845 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Miya, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. M. Garner, S.-S. Lee, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Gimkiewicz, D. Hagedorn, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and F. Thoma, Appl. Opt. 38, 2986 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1991 (1)

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, R. F. Kazarinov, and K. J. Orlowsky, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 556 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, J.

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, K. Losch, K. Satzke, W. Wischmann, J. Wirth, J. Schneider, J. Bauer, and M. Bauer, Electron. Lett. 36, 89 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, M.

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, K. Losch, K. Satzke, W. Wischmann, J. Wirth, J. Schneider, J. Bauer, and M. Bauer, Electron. Lett. 36, 89 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, R.

J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, and J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4845 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, D. H.

M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. H. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.

M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. H. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

S. M. Garner, S.-S. Lee, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chuyanov, V.

S. M. Garner, S.-S. Lee, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. H. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Garner, S.-S. Lee, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dascher, W.

Erlig, H.

M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. H. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. H. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Garner, S. M.

S. M. Garner, S.-S. Lee, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gimkiewicz, C.

Greffet, J.

J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, and J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4845 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hagedorn, D.

Henry, C. H.

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, R. F. Kazarinov, and K. J. Orlowsky, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 556 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

Kazarinov, R. F.

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, R. F. Kazarinov, and K. J. Orlowsky, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 556 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Keil, N.

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, K. Losch, K. Satzke, W. Wischmann, J. Wirth, J. Schneider, J. Bauer, and M. Bauer, Electron. Lett. 36, 89 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kistler, R. C.

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, R. F. Kazarinov, and K. J. Orlowsky, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 556 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E. B.

Lee, S. J.

Lee, S.-S.

S. M. Garner, S.-S. Lee, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Long, P.

Losch, K.

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, K. Losch, K. Satzke, W. Wischmann, J. Wirth, J. Schneider, J. Bauer, and M. Bauer, Electron. Lett. 36, 89 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miya, T.

T. Miya, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M. C.

M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. H. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Orlowsky, K. J.

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, R. F. Kazarinov, and K. J. Orlowsky, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 556 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Paesler, M.

M. Paesler, Near Field Optics: Theory, Instrumentation, and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1996).

Porto, J. A.

J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, and J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4845 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Satzke, K.

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, K. Losch, K. Satzke, W. Wischmann, J. Wirth, J. Schneider, J. Bauer, and M. Bauer, Electron. Lett. 36, 89 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, J.

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, K. Losch, K. Satzke, W. Wischmann, J. Wirth, J. Schneider, J. Bauer, and M. Bauer, Electron. Lett. 36, 89 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shani, Y.

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, R. F. Kazarinov, and K. J. Orlowsky, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 556 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. H. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Garner, S.-S. Lee, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stein, R.

Szep, A.

M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. H. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thoma, F.

Tsap, B.

M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. H. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wirth, J.

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, K. Losch, K. Satzke, W. Wischmann, J. Wirth, J. Schneider, J. Bauer, and M. Bauer, Electron. Lett. 36, 89 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wischmann, W.

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, K. Losch, K. Satzke, W. Wischmann, J. Wirth, J. Schneider, J. Bauer, and M. Bauer, Electron. Lett. 36, 89 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

Yacoubian, A.

S. M. Garner, S.-S. Lee, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yao, H. H.

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, K. Losch, K. Satzke, W. Wischmann, J. Wirth, J. Schneider, J. Bauer, and M. Bauer, Electron. Lett. 36, 89 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zawadzki, C.

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, K. Losch, K. Satzke, W. Wischmann, J. Wirth, J. Schneider, J. Bauer, and M. Bauer, Electron. Lett. 36, 89 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. H. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. H. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, K. Losch, K. Satzke, W. Wischmann, J. Wirth, J. Schneider, J. Bauer, and M. Bauer, Electron. Lett. 36, 89 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, R. F. Kazarinov, and K. J. Orlowsky, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 556 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Garner, S.-S. Lee, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. Miya, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. H. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, and J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4845 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Paesler, Near Field Optics: Theory, Instrumentation, and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1996).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a vertically integrated silica–polymer hybrid modulator, placing EO polymer only where active phase shifting is required. The example shown here is a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with a coplanar electrode structure. For devices with more complicated geometries, or for arrays of devices on a chip, the ratio of passive to active section lengths favors a hybrid approach even more strongly.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation results overlaying a scale drawing of a 3-mm-length exponential adiabatic transition. All dimensions are in micrometers. Only the optically significant center portion of the polymer transition is shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top, profiler (Dektak-8) scan of a 2-mm exponential profile pattern in developed AZ-4210 photoresist. Bottom, structure height versus gray-scale mask OD in photoresist after lithography and in active EO polymer after oxygen-plasma etching. The similar slopes imply compatible etch rates for pattern transfer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Five microscopic images taken along the profile of a fabricated transition, showing the result of the gray-scale pattern transfer. The vertical rise of the EO-polymer layer’s rib and shoulder above a silica channel waveguide can be seen in the gradual darkening of the structures.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transition output measurement. Top, near-field probe measurement. Bottom, simulated fundamental mode, with fabricated polymer rib dimensions and with the actual end-face–probe gap taken into account.

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