Abstract

Low-cost adaptive optics is applied in lasers, scientific instrumentation, ultrafast sciences, and ophthalmology. These applications demand that the deformable mirrors used be simple, inexpensive, reliable, and efficient. We report a novel type of ultralow-cost deformable mirror with thermal actuators. The device has a response time of 5 s, an actuator stroke of 6 µm, and temporal stability of λ/10 rms in the visible range and can be used for correction of rather large aberrations with slow-changing amplitude.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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2001 (4)

2000 (2)

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, Nature 406, 164 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Paterson, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, Opt. Express 6, 175 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. C. Roggemann, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, W. D. Cowan, and M. Lee, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 451 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

A. V. Kudryashov, J. Gonglewski, S. Brownie, and R. Highland, Opt. Commun. 141, 247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Albert, O.

Armstrong, M. R.

Artal, P.

Backus, S.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, Nature 406, 164 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, R.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, Nature 406, 164 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bright, V. M.

M. C. Roggemann, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, W. D. Cowan, and M. Lee, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 451 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brownie, S.

A. V. Kudryashov, J. Gonglewski, S. Brownie, and R. Highland, Opt. Commun. 141, 247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I. P.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, Nature 406, 164 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cowan, W. D.

M. C. Roggemann, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, W. D. Cowan, and M. Lee, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 451 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, J. C.

Fernandez, E. J.

Gonglewski, J.

A. V. Kudryashov, J. Gonglewski, S. Brownie, and R. Highland, Opt. Commun. 141, 247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Highland, R.

A. V. Kudryashov, J. Gonglewski, S. Brownie, and R. Highland, Opt. Commun. 141, 247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Holton, J. P.

J. P. Holton, Heat Transfer (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1997).

Iglesias, I.

Kapteyn, H.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, Nature 406, 164 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiyko, V.

Koryabin, A. V.

Kudryashov, A. V.

J. C. Dainty, A. V. Koryabin, and A. V. Kudryashov, Appl. Opt. 37, 4663 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kudryashov, J. Gonglewski, S. Brownie, and R. Highland, Opt. Commun. 141, 247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

M. C. Roggemann, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, W. D. Cowan, and M. Lee, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 451 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. J. D.

Misoguti, L.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, Nature 406, 164 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

Munro, I.

Murnane, M. M.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, Nature 406, 164 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naumov, A. F.

Norris, T. B.

Paterson, C.

Plachta, P.

Ponomarev, E. A.

Roggemann, M. C.

M. C. Roggemann, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, W. D. Cowan, and M. Lee, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 451 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sarro, P. M.

Sherman, L.

Timoshenko, S. P.

S. P. Timoshenko and S. Woinowsky-Krieger, Theory of Plates and Shells (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

Vdovin, G.

Welsh, B. M.

M. C. Roggemann, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, W. D. Cowan, and M. Lee, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 451 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Woinowsky-Krieger, S.

S. P. Timoshenko and S. Woinowsky-Krieger, Theory of Plates and Shells (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

Zeek, E.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, Nature 406, 164 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Nature (1)

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, Nature 406, 164 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. V. Kudryashov, J. Gonglewski, S. Brownie, and R. Highland, Opt. Commun. 141, 247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. C. Roggemann, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, W. D. Cowan, and M. Lee, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 451 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. P. Timoshenko and S. Woinowsky-Krieger, Theory of Plates and Shells (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

J. P. Holton, Heat Transfer (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1997).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top, schematic section of the deformable mirror. Bottom, assembled device with driver electronics.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mirror test setup. DAC, digital–analog converter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top, influence functions of the deformable mirror corresponding to three different actuators. Bottom, temporal response to a step signal applied to a single actuator compared with the mirror’s thermal tremor, measured at full elongation of all actuators.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Heat transfer in the actuator.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Interferometric pattern over the full mirror aperture (left) before and (center and right, taken with 5-s intervals between frames) after correction. The difference between two corrected interferograms is caused by the thermal tremor.

Equations (1)

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Kp=16π1+νD3+νa2, D=Eph3/121-ν2,

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