Abstract

We have developed a custom scanning laser ophthalmoscope that uses phase plates produced by photolithography to improve the contrast of human retinal images. We combined the scanning engine from a commercial real-time confocal microscope with custom optics to provide medium magnification imaging of the human retina (3° field of view). Defocus and astigmatism were corrected with conventional trial lenses. Higher-order aberrations of the eye were corrected with a phase plate. A 633-nm laser was used for illuminating the retina. Inserting the phase plate into the optical system increased the contrast of a sample retinal vessel by 26%. Additionally, a number of small features of the retina, which were not visible with standard commercial imaging systems, became visible. There results illustrate that, with the rapid development of custom fabrication techniques for refractive corrections, improved diagnostic imaging with little added complexity to existing ophthalmic imaging systems may be realistic.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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2001 (3)

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon, and D. R. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 497 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernandez, I. Iglesias, N. Antequera, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 544 (2001).

R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. B. Frish, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 4255 (2001).

2000 (4)

1999 (3)

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, Appl. Opt. 38, 2105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Yoon, I. Cox, and D. R. Williams, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 211 (1999).

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, Nature 397, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

1997 (3)

R. Navarro and M. A. Losada, Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 540 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Applegate and H. C. Howland, J. Refractive Surg. 13, 295 (1997).

1996 (1)

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, Vision Res. 36, 191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

A. F. Fercher and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Mod. Opt. 38, 616 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

Anderson, R. R.

Antequera, N.

E. J. Fernandez, I. Iglesias, N. Antequera, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 544 (2001).

Applegate, R. A.

R. A. Applegate and H. C. Howland, J. Refractive Surg. 13, 295 (1997).

Aragon, J. L.

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon, and D. R. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 497 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon, and D. R. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 497 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernandez, I. Iglesias, N. Antequera, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 544 (2001).

I. Iglesias and P. Artal, Opt. Lett. 25, 1804 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Vargas-Martin, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2552 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bara, S.

Bartsch, D. U.

L. J. Zhu, D. U. Bartsch, W. R. Freeman, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, Optom. Vis. Sci. 75, 827 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. O’Connor, D. U. Bartsch, W. J. Freeman, A. J. Mueller, and T. J. Holmes, Appl. Opt. 37, 2021 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beausencourt, E.

Bille, J. F.

Burns, S. A.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, I.

G. Yoon, I. Cox, and D. R. Williams, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 211 (1999).

Delori, F. C.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, Vision Res. 36, 191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and F. C. Delori, Appl. Opt. 26, 1492 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreher, A. W.

Elsner, A. E.

Fainman, Y.

L. J. Zhu, D. U. Bartsch, W. R. Freeman, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, Optom. Vis. Sci. 75, 827 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Mod. Opt. 38, 616 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, R. D.

R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. B. Frish, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 4255 (2001).

Fernandez, E. J.

E. J. Fernandez, I. Iglesias, N. Antequera, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 544 (2001).

Fletcher, D. C.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, W. J.

Freeman, W. R.

L. J. Zhu, D. U. Bartsch, W. R. Freeman, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, Optom. Vis. Sci. 75, 827 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frish, M. B.

R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. B. Frish, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 4255 (2001).

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Mod. Opt. 38, 616 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, H.

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon, and D. R. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 497 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, T. J.

Howland, H. C.

H. C. Howland, J. Refractive Surg. 16, S552 (2000).

R. A. Applegate and H. C. Howland, J. Refractive Surg. 13, 295 (1997).

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, G. W.

Iglesias, I.

E. J. Fernandez, I. Iglesias, N. Antequera, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 544 (2001).

I. Iglesias and P. Artal, Opt. Lett. 25, 1804 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, L. M.

Kunze, C.

Liang, J.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Losada, M. A.

R. Navarro and M. A. Losada, Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 540 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magill, J. C.

R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. B. Frish, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 4255 (2001).

Mancebo, T.

Miller, D. T.

Miura, M.

Moreno-Barriuso, E.

Mueller, A. J.

Navarro, R.

O’Connor, N. J.

Prieto, P. M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

Raskauskas, P. A.

Roorda, A.

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, Nature 397, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singer, B.

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon, and D. R. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 497 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, P. C.

L. J. Zhu, D. U. Bartsch, W. R. Freeman, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, Optom. Vis. Sci. 75, 827 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vargas-Martin, F.

Walker, J. P.

Webb, R. H.

Weinreb, R. N.

Weiter, J. J.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, Vision Res. 36, 191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon, and D. R. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 497 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, Nature 397, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yoon, I. Cox, and D. R. Williams, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 211 (1999).

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wing, G. L.

Yoon, G.

G. Yoon, I. Cox, and D. R. Williams, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 211 (1999).

Zhou, Q.

Zhu, L. J.

L. J. Zhu, D. U. Bartsch, W. R. Freeman, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, Optom. Vis. Sci. 75, 827 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (3)

E. J. Fernandez, I. Iglesias, N. Antequera, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 544 (2001).

R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. B. Frish, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 4255 (2001).

G. Yoon, I. Cox, and D. R. Williams, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 211 (1999).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. F. Fercher and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Mod. Opt. 38, 616 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon, and D. R. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 497 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Refractive Surg. (2)

R. A. Applegate and H. C. Howland, J. Refractive Surg. 13, 295 (1997).

H. C. Howland, J. Refractive Surg. 16, S552 (2000).

Nature (1)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, Nature 397, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (2)

R. Navarro and M. A. Losada, Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 540 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Zhu, D. U. Bartsch, W. R. Freeman, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, Optom. Vis. Sci. 75, 827 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (1)

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, Vision Res. 36, 191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram (not to scale) of the imaging system. He–Ne, 633-nm He–Ne laser; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; P, polygon scanner; G, galvanometer scanner; QWP, 1/4 wave plate; PT, phase plate and trial lenses; APD, avalanche photodiode; CCD, pupil position camera for monitoring alignment. Lenses L1 and L2 form the pupil relay, L3 and L4 decrease the scan angle, and L4 and L5 relay the image of the pupil from the polygon to the galvanometer. The inset (top left) shows the wave-front aberration of the subject. The contour intervals are in wavelengths at 540 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Imaging series comparing imaging modalities. A, Image of the subject’s retina obtained with a research SLO at 633 nm. The box indicates the region of interest for the other images. B, Magnified view of the region from A. C, Image of the same area with the experimental apparatus but without the phase plate. D, Image of the same area after the phase plate is inserted. The open and filled arrows are described in the text. The bright areas are due to reflections from the optics.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image series showing a comparison of imaging modalities. The panels are as identified in Fig. 2. The dashed line in B indicates the cross section along which the intensity was plotted in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity along the cross section shown in Fig. 3 for the standard image (solid curve) and the image obtained with the phase plate inserted (dashed curve). The data have been normalized by their mean to correct for the slightly decreased intensity with the phase plate inserted.

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