Abstract

We utilized a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor video camera for fast flow imaging with the laser Doppler technique. A single sensor is used for both observation of the area of interest and measurements of the interference signal caused by dynamic light scattering from moving particles inside scattering objects. In particular, we demonstrate the possibility of imaging the distribution of the moving red blood cell concentration. This is a first step toward laser Doppler imaging without scanning parts, leading to a much faster imaging procedure than with existing mechanical laser Doppler perfusion imagers.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Wårdell, A. Jakobsson, and G. E. Nilsson, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. J. H. Essex and P. O. Byrne, J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Fujii, K. Nohira, Y. Yamamoto, H. Ikawa, and T. Ohura, Appl. Opt. 26, 5321 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Konishi and H. Fujii, Opt. Eng. 34, 753 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. D. Briers, G. Richards, and X. W. He, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 164 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. K. Dunn, H. Boaly, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. D. Briers, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 345 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Dierickx, D. Scheffer, G. Meynants, W. Ogiers, and J. Vlummens, Proc. SPIE 2950, 2 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Fujii, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 32, 302 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. P. Shepherd and P. Å. Öberg, eds., Laser-Doppler Blood Flowmetry (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Bornmyr, A. Mårtensson, H. Svensson, K.-G. Nilsson, and P. Wollmer, Clin. Physiol. 16, 535 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. A. Pape, C. A. Skouras, and P. O. Byrne, Burns 27, 233 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. K. Dunn, H. Boaly, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. A. Pape, C. A. Skouras, and P. O. Byrne, Burns 27, 233 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. D. Briers, G. Richards, and X. W. He, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 164 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (3)

B. Dierickx, D. Scheffer, G. Meynants, W. Ogiers, and J. Vlummens, Proc. SPIE 2950, 2 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Briers, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 345 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Bornmyr, A. Mårtensson, H. Svensson, K.-G. Nilsson, and P. Wollmer, Clin. Physiol. 16, 535 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

N. Konishi and H. Fujii, Opt. Eng. 34, 753 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H. Fujii, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 32, 302 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

K. Wårdell, A. Jakobsson, and G. E. Nilsson, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

T. J. H. Essex and P. O. Byrne, J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

Boaly, H.

A. K. Dunn, H. Boaly, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

A. K. Dunn, H. Boaly, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bornmyr, S.

S. Bornmyr, A. Mårtensson, H. Svensson, K.-G. Nilsson, and P. Wollmer, Clin. Physiol. 16, 535 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briers, J. D.

J. D. Briers, G. Richards, and X. W. He, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 164 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Briers, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 345 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, P. O.

S. A. Pape, C. A. Skouras, and P. O. Byrne, Burns 27, 233 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. J. H. Essex and P. O. Byrne, J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dierickx, B.

B. Dierickx, D. Scheffer, G. Meynants, W. Ogiers, and J. Vlummens, Proc. SPIE 2950, 2 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, A. K.

A. K. Dunn, H. Boaly, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Essex, T. J. H.

T. J. H. Essex and P. O. Byrne, J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujii, H.

N. Konishi and H. Fujii, Opt. Eng. 34, 753 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujii, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 32, 302 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fujii, K. Nohira, Y. Yamamoto, H. Ikawa, and T. Ohura, Appl. Opt. 26, 5321 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, X. W.

J. D. Briers, G. Richards, and X. W. He, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 164 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikawa, H.

Jakobsson, A.

K. Wårdell, A. Jakobsson, and G. E. Nilsson, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Konishi, N.

N. Konishi and H. Fujii, Opt. Eng. 34, 753 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mårtensson, A.

S. Bornmyr, A. Mårtensson, H. Svensson, K.-G. Nilsson, and P. Wollmer, Clin. Physiol. 16, 535 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meynants, G.

B. Dierickx, D. Scheffer, G. Meynants, W. Ogiers, and J. Vlummens, Proc. SPIE 2950, 2 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moskowitz, M. A.

A. K. Dunn, H. Boaly, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, G. E.

K. Wårdell, A. Jakobsson, and G. E. Nilsson, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, K.-G.

S. Bornmyr, A. Mårtensson, H. Svensson, K.-G. Nilsson, and P. Wollmer, Clin. Physiol. 16, 535 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nohira, K.

Ogiers, W.

B. Dierickx, D. Scheffer, G. Meynants, W. Ogiers, and J. Vlummens, Proc. SPIE 2950, 2 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ohura, T.

Pape, S. A.

S. A. Pape, C. A. Skouras, and P. O. Byrne, Burns 27, 233 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richards, G.

J. D. Briers, G. Richards, and X. W. He, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 164 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheffer, D.

B. Dierickx, D. Scheffer, G. Meynants, W. Ogiers, and J. Vlummens, Proc. SPIE 2950, 2 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Skouras, C. A.

S. A. Pape, C. A. Skouras, and P. O. Byrne, Burns 27, 233 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Svensson, H.

S. Bornmyr, A. Mårtensson, H. Svensson, K.-G. Nilsson, and P. Wollmer, Clin. Physiol. 16, 535 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlummens, J.

B. Dierickx, D. Scheffer, G. Meynants, W. Ogiers, and J. Vlummens, Proc. SPIE 2950, 2 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wårdell, K.

K. Wårdell, A. Jakobsson, and G. E. Nilsson, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wollmer, P.

S. Bornmyr, A. Mårtensson, H. Svensson, K.-G. Nilsson, and P. Wollmer, Clin. Physiol. 16, 535 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Burns (1)

S. A. Pape, C. A. Skouras, and P. O. Byrne, Burns 27, 233 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Physiol. (1)

S. Bornmyr, A. Mårtensson, H. Svensson, K.-G. Nilsson, and P. Wollmer, Clin. Physiol. 16, 535 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

K. Wårdell, A. Jakobsson, and G. E. Nilsson, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Eng. (1)

T. J. H. Essex and P. O. Byrne, J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. D. Briers, G. Richards, and X. W. He, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 164 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1)

A. K. Dunn, H. Boaly, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (1)

H. Fujii, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 32, 302 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

N. Konishi and H. Fujii, Opt. Eng. 34, 753 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. Dierickx, D. Scheffer, G. Meynants, W. Ogiers, and J. Vlummens, Proc. SPIE 2950, 2 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. P. Shepherd and P. Å. Öberg, eds., Laser-Doppler Blood Flowmetry (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1990).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: S, sample; O1, diverging optics; LS, 10-mW He–Ne laser, 632.8 nm; O2, focusing optics; CMOS, CMOS video camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Drawings of the in vitro samples used in the experiment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photographic images of the scattering samples and corresponding gray-scale and false-color maps of the concentrations of moving particles obtained with the CMOS camera. The lighter areas on the gray-shadow concentration maps indicate regions with a higher concentration of moving particles. The dashed lines on the sample images indicate the locations of the flow areas. See text for explanation of (a)–(c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Imaging of blood flow in tissue: occlusion test. The finger under investigation is shown being illuminated by a laser beam; the blood concentration maps, obtained before and during the occlusion, are placed next to the full-frame sample image. Both the photographic image and the concentration maps were obtained with a single CMOS camera. The lighter areas on the gray-shadow concentration maps indicate regions with a higher concentration of moving blood cells.

Equations (3)

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Vi,j=Ii,j-Ii,j2/Ii,jN2, i,j=164.
M0PωdωIdc2,
CMP=-ln1-M0β2LSC.

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