Abstract

Holographic gratings were in a composite material that comprised a cross-linked polymer with azobenzene side chains and a nematic liquid crystal. Holographic recording was based on the photoinduced alignment of the nematic liquid crystal inside a cell as a result of amplification of the photoreorientation of azobenzene residues. The diffraction efficiency depends on cell thickness and reading angle of the gratings, so this composite material exhibits volume holographic properties with Bragg diffraction.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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2001 (1)

N. Yoshimoto, S. Morino, A. Kaiho, and K. Ichimura, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 359, 41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

K. Ichimura, Chem. Rev. 100, 1847 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, T. Kawamura, N. Frias, K. Kitamura, N. Kawatsuki, H. Norisada, and T. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and K. Tripathy, J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941 (1999).

C. C. Bowley, G. P. Crawford, and H. Yuan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3096 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

H. Ono, I. Saito, and N. Kawatsuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Morino, A. Kaiho, and K. Ichimura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1317 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujan, Nature 383, 505 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. Xie, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Chem. Mater. 5, 403 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1984 (1)

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Berg, R. H.

R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujan, Nature 383, 505 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bian, S.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and K. Tripathy, J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941 (1999).

Bowley, C. C.

C. C. Bowley, G. P. Crawford, and H. Yuan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3096 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

C. C. Bowley, G. P. Crawford, and H. Yuan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3096 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eich, M.

Frias, N.

H. Ono, T. Kawamura, N. Frias, K. Kitamura, N. Kawatsuki, H. Norisada, and T. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Golemme, A.

Hvilsted, S.

R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujan, Nature 383, 505 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ichimura, K.

N. Yoshimoto, S. Morino, A. Kaiho, and K. Ichimura, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 359, 41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Ichimura, Chem. Rev. 100, 1847 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Morino, A. Kaiho, and K. Ichimura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1317 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Yoshimoto, S. Morino, A. Kaiho, and K. Ichimura, Chem. Lett. 1999, 711.

Kaiho, A.

N. Yoshimoto, S. Morino, A. Kaiho, and K. Ichimura, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 359, 41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Morino, A. Kaiho, and K. Ichimura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1317 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Yoshimoto, S. Morino, A. Kaiho, and K. Ichimura, Chem. Lett. 1999, 711.

Kawamura, T.

H. Ono, T. Kawamura, N. Frias, K. Kitamura, N. Kawatsuki, H. Norisada, and T. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawatsuki, N.

H. Ono, T. Kawamura, N. Frias, K. Kitamura, N. Kawatsuki, H. Norisada, and T. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, I. Saito, and N. Kawatsuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

Kim, D. Y.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and K. Tripathy, J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941 (1999).

Kippelen, B.

Kitamura, K.

H. Ono, T. Kawamura, N. Frias, K. Kitamura, N. Kawatsuki, H. Norisada, and T. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, J.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and K. Tripathy, J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941 (1999).

Li, L.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and K. Tripathy, J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941 (1999).

Liu, W.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and K. Tripathy, J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941 (1999).

Moerner, W. E.

W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morino, S.

N. Yoshimoto, S. Morino, A. Kaiho, and K. Ichimura, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 359, 41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Morino, A. Kaiho, and K. Ichimura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1317 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Yoshimoto, S. Morino, A. Kaiho, and K. Ichimura, Chem. Lett. 1999, 711.

Natansohn, A.

S. Xie, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Chem. Mater. 5, 403 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nikolova, L.

Norisada, H.

H. Ono, T. Kawamura, N. Frias, K. Kitamura, N. Kawatsuki, H. Norisada, and T. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ono, H.

H. Ono, T. Kawamura, N. Frias, K. Kitamura, N. Kawatsuki, H. Norisada, and T. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, I. Saito, and N. Kawatsuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Ramanujan, P. S.

R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujan, Nature 383, 505 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, P.

S. Xie, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Chem. Mater. 5, 403 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Saito, I.

H. Ono, I. Saito, and N. Kawatsuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Samuelson, L.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and K. Tripathy, J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941 (1999).

Silence, S. M.

W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Todorov, T.

Tomova, N.

Tripathy, K.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and K. Tripathy, J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941 (1999).

Viswanathan, N. K.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and K. Tripathy, J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941 (1999).

Volodin, B. L.

Wendorff, J. H.

Williams, J.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and K. Tripathy, J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941 (1999).

Xie, S.

S. Xie, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Chem. Mater. 5, 403 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

H. Ono, T. Kawamura, N. Frias, K. Kitamura, N. Kawatsuki, H. Norisada, and T. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimoto, N.

N. Yoshimoto, S. Morino, A. Kaiho, and K. Ichimura, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 359, 41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Yoshimoto, S. Morino, A. Kaiho, and K. Ichimura, Chem. Lett. 1999, 711.

Yuan, H.

C. C. Bowley, G. P. Crawford, and H. Yuan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3096 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Morino, A. Kaiho, and K. Ichimura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1317 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, I. Saito, and N. Kawatsuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bowley, G. P. Crawford, and H. Yuan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3096 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Lett. (1)

N. Yoshimoto, S. Morino, A. Kaiho, and K. Ichimura, Chem. Lett. 1999, 711.

Chem. Mater. (1)

S. Xie, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Chem. Mater. 5, 403 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (2)

K. Ichimura, Chem. Rev. 100, 1847 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Ono, T. Kawamura, N. Frias, K. Kitamura, N. Kawatsuki, H. Norisada, and T. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and K. Tripathy, J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941 (1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

N. Yoshimoto, S. Morino, A. Kaiho, and K. Ichimura, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 359, 41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujan, Nature 383, 505 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

G. P. Crawford and S. Zumer, eds., Liquid Crystals in Complex Geometries Formed by Polymer and Porous Networks (Taylor & Francis, London, 1996).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Chemical structures of compounds used in this study and (b) the optical setup for our holography experiments.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Dependence of diffraction efficiency on exposure energy for a 25µm-thick cell. The incident angle between two beams was 14°. (b) Birefringence changes of a 25 µm-thick sample induced by irradiation with linearly polarized 436-nm light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of diffraction efficiency on cell thickness after irradiation with light beams from an Ar+ laser at 488 nm (open circles) and at 514 nm (filled circles) for 5 min at an incident angle of 14°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular dependence of diffraction efficiency on cell thickness after irradiation with an Ar+ laser at 488 nm for 5 min at an incident angle of 14°. Cell thickness, 25 µm (filled circles), 100 µm (filled squares), 200 µm (open circles), 300 µm (open squares).

Equations (2)

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Q=2πλd/nΛ2,
Λ=λ/2 sinθ/2,

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