Abstract

A compact, photocouplerlike system is presented for wireless transcutaneous transmission of biological signals. The system consists of an optically powered near-infrared light transmitter, a receiver for the signals from it, and a near-infrared light source with which to irradiate it. The transmitter, which is implanted under the skin, is transcutaneously coupled with the receiver and the light source, which are combined and placed on the skin. The transmitter, which is powered transcutaneously by the light source, then amplifies a signal input to it and sends intensity-modulated light transcutaneously to the receiver. With this system, electromyograms and neuronal firing patterns of live rats have been successfully recorded.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Kudo, K. Shimizu, and G. Matsumoto, Front. Med. Biol. Eng. 1, 19 (1988).
  2. Y. Mitamura, E. Okamoto, and T. Mikami, ASAIO Trans. 36, M278 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  3. K. Goto, T. Nakagawa, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3079 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Goto, T. Nakagawa, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 830 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. E. Uellendahl, Phys. Med. Rehabil. Clin. N. Am. 11, 639 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  6. See, for example, L. Cromwell, F. J. Weibell, and E. A. Pfeiffer, Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1980), Chap. 10.
  7. L. A. Geddes and L. E. Baker, Med. Biol. Eng. 4, 439 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Kanai, Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 15, 48 (1977).

2001

K. Goto, T. Nakagawa, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3079 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Goto, T. Nakagawa, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 830 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

J. E. Uellendahl, Phys. Med. Rehabil. Clin. N. Am. 11, 639 (2000).
[PubMed]

1990

Y. Mitamura, E. Okamoto, and T. Mikami, ASAIO Trans. 36, M278 (1990).
[PubMed]

1988

N. Kudo, K. Shimizu, and G. Matsumoto, Front. Med. Biol. Eng. 1, 19 (1988).

1977

H. Kanai, Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 15, 48 (1977).

1966

L. A. Geddes and L. E. Baker, Med. Biol. Eng. 4, 439 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, L. E.

L. A. Geddes and L. E. Baker, Med. Biol. Eng. 4, 439 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cromwell, L.

See, for example, L. Cromwell, F. J. Weibell, and E. A. Pfeiffer, Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1980), Chap. 10.

Geddes, L. A.

L. A. Geddes and L. E. Baker, Med. Biol. Eng. 4, 439 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goto, K.

K. Goto, T. Nakagawa, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3079 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Goto, T. Nakagawa, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 830 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanai, H.

H. Kanai, Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 15, 48 (1977).

Kawata, S.

K. Goto, T. Nakagawa, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 830 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goto, T. Nakagawa, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3079 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kudo, N.

N. Kudo, K. Shimizu, and G. Matsumoto, Front. Med. Biol. Eng. 1, 19 (1988).

Matsumoto, G.

N. Kudo, K. Shimizu, and G. Matsumoto, Front. Med. Biol. Eng. 1, 19 (1988).

Mikami, T.

Y. Mitamura, E. Okamoto, and T. Mikami, ASAIO Trans. 36, M278 (1990).
[PubMed]

Mitamura, Y.

Y. Mitamura, E. Okamoto, and T. Mikami, ASAIO Trans. 36, M278 (1990).
[PubMed]

Nakagawa, T.

K. Goto, T. Nakagawa, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 830 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goto, T. Nakagawa, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3079 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, O.

K. Goto, T. Nakagawa, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3079 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Goto, T. Nakagawa, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 830 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, E.

Y. Mitamura, E. Okamoto, and T. Mikami, ASAIO Trans. 36, M278 (1990).
[PubMed]

Pfeiffer, E. A.

See, for example, L. Cromwell, F. J. Weibell, and E. A. Pfeiffer, Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1980), Chap. 10.

Shimizu, K.

N. Kudo, K. Shimizu, and G. Matsumoto, Front. Med. Biol. Eng. 1, 19 (1988).

Uellendahl, J. E.

J. E. Uellendahl, Phys. Med. Rehabil. Clin. N. Am. 11, 639 (2000).
[PubMed]

Weibell, F. J.

See, for example, L. Cromwell, F. J. Weibell, and E. A. Pfeiffer, Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1980), Chap. 10.

ASAIO Trans.

Y. Mitamura, E. Okamoto, and T. Mikami, ASAIO Trans. 36, M278 (1990).
[PubMed]

Front. Med. Biol. Eng.

N. Kudo, K. Shimizu, and G. Matsumoto, Front. Med. Biol. Eng. 1, 19 (1988).

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

K. Goto, T. Nakagawa, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 830 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng.

H. Kanai, Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 15, 48 (1977).

Med. Biol. Eng.

L. A. Geddes and L. E. Baker, Med. Biol. Eng. 4, 439 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Rehabil. Clin. N. Am.

J. E. Uellendahl, Phys. Med. Rehabil. Clin. N. Am. 11, 639 (2000).
[PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

K. Goto, T. Nakagawa, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3079 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

See, for example, L. Cromwell, F. J. Weibell, and E. A. Pfeiffer, Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1980), Chap. 10.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the proposed telemetry system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the transmitter circuit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) EMG obtained from the abdominal muscle of a rat. (b) Neuronal firing pattern obtained from a sciatic nerve of another rat. The estimated peak intensities of these signals are 2040 µV.

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