Abstract

We demonstrate RF sputtered, non-epitaxially-grown semiconductor nanocrystallite-doped silica films for mode locking a Cr:forsterite laser. We controlled the size and the optical properties of the nanocrystallites by varying the ratio of InAs to SiO2 during fabrication. Femtosecond pump–probe measurements were performed to characterize the nonlinear optical properties of these films, revealing their lower saturation fluences. Using the InAs-doped silica films as saturable absorbers permitted self-starting Kerr-lens mode locking (KLM), generating pulses of 25-fs duration with 91-nm spectral bandwidth at 1.3 µm. We also describe saturable-absorber mode-locked operation without KLM and investigate its dependence on intracavity dispersion.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2001 (1)

1999 (1)

I. P. Bilinsky, J. G. Fujimoto, J. N. Walpole, and L. J. Misaggia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

I. P. Bilinsky, J. G. Fujimoto, J. N. Walpole, and L. J. Misaggia, Opt. Lett. 23, 1766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, J. Aus der Au, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

Z. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Itatani, K. Kobayashi, T. Sugaya, and T. Nakagawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 65, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1992 (1)

S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, T. Ikegami, J. Matsuoke, and K. Kamiya, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2206 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

K. Tsunetomo, H. Nasu, H. Kitayama, A. Kawabuchi, Y. Osaka, and K. Takiyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1928 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Angelow, G.

Aus der Au, J.

F. X. Kärtner, J. Aus der Au, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Banyai, L.

L. Banyai and S. W. Koch, Semiconductor Quantum Dots (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).

Bilinsky, I. P.

I. P. Bilinsky, J. G. Fujimoto, J. N. Walpole, and L. J. Misaggia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Bilinsky, J. G. Fujimoto, J. N. Walpole, and L. J. Misaggia, Opt. Lett. 23, 1766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chudoba, C.

Cundiff, S. T.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Haus, H. A.

Hönninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ikegami, T.

S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, T. Ikegami, J. Matsuoke, and K. Kamiya, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2206 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Itatani, T.

Z. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Itatani, K. Kobayashi, T. Sugaya, and T. Nakagawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W. Y.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jung, I. D.

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 65, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kamiya, K.

S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, T. Ikegami, J. Matsuoke, and K. Kamiya, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2206 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, S.

S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, T. Ikegami, J. Matsuoke, and K. Kamiya, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2206 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

C. Chudoba, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Lett. 26, 292 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, J. Aus der Au, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 65, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kawabuchi, A.

K. Tsunetomo, H. Nasu, H. Kitayama, A. Kawabuchi, Y. Osaka, and K. Takiyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1928 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

F. X. Kärtner, J. Aus der Au, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 65, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kitayama, H.

K. Tsunetomo, H. Nasu, H. Kitayama, A. Kawabuchi, Y. Osaka, and K. Takiyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1928 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

Z. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Itatani, K. Kobayashi, T. Sugaya, and T. Nakagawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

L. Banyai and S. W. Koch, Semiconductor Quantum Dots (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matsuoke, J.

S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, T. Ikegami, J. Matsuoke, and K. Kamiya, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2206 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Matuschek, N.

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 65, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Minkov, B. I.

Misaggia, L. J.

I. P. Bilinsky, J. G. Fujimoto, J. N. Walpole, and L. J. Misaggia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Bilinsky, J. G. Fujimoto, J. N. Walpole, and L. J. Misaggia, Opt. Lett. 23, 1766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

Morier-Genoud, F.

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 65, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, T.

Z. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Itatani, K. Kobayashi, T. Sugaya, and T. Nakagawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nasu, H.

S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, T. Ikegami, J. Matsuoke, and K. Kamiya, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2206 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsunetomo, H. Nasu, H. Kitayama, A. Kawabuchi, Y. Osaka, and K. Takiyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1928 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Osaka, Y.

K. Tsunetomo, H. Nasu, H. Kitayama, A. Kawabuchi, Y. Osaka, and K. Takiyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1928 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pang, Y.

Petricevic, V.

Scheuer, V.

C. Chudoba, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Lett. 26, 292 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 65, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seas, A.

Shi, Z.

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 65, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sugaya, T.

Z. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Itatani, K. Kobayashi, T. Sugaya, and T. Nakagawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, D. H.

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 65, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takiyama, K.

K. Tsunetomo, H. Nasu, H. Kitayama, A. Kawabuchi, Y. Osaka, and K. Takiyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1928 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tilsch, M.

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 65, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Torizuka, K.

Z. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Itatani, K. Kobayashi, T. Sugaya, and T. Nakagawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tschudi, T.

C. Chudoba, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Lett. 26, 292 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 65, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, S.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsunetomo, K.

K. Tsunetomo, H. Nasu, H. Kitayama, A. Kawabuchi, Y. Osaka, and K. Takiyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1928 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Walpole, J. N.

I. P. Bilinsky, J. G. Fujimoto, J. N. Walpole, and L. J. Misaggia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Bilinsky, J. G. Fujimoto, J. N. Walpole, and L. J. Misaggia, Opt. Lett. 23, 1766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F.

Yanovsky, V.

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Itatani, K. Kobayashi, T. Sugaya, and T. Nakagawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 65, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. P. Bilinsky, J. G. Fujimoto, J. N. Walpole, and L. J. Misaggia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Z. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Itatani, K. Kobayashi, T. Sugaya, and T. Nakagawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

F. X. Kärtner, J. Aus der Au, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. Tsunetomo, H. Nasu, H. Kitayama, A. Kawabuchi, Y. Osaka, and K. Takiyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1928 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, T. Ikegami, J. Matsuoke, and K. Kamiya, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2206 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

L. Banyai and S. W. Koch, Semiconductor Quantum Dots (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Comparison of transmission of 10% InAs/90% SiO2 and 40% InAs/60% SiO2 films. The absorption edge of the 40% InAs/60% SiO2 film is shifted toward longer wavelengths. (b) Pump–probe measurement of 40% InAs/60% SiO2 saturable absorber device at 1.26 µm. The measured saturation fluence was 3.35 mJ/cm2, and the fast and slow recovery times were 2.7 and 29 ps, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of Cr:forsterite laser with an additional fold. X, crystal; M1, 10-cm radius-of-curvature DCM; M2, 7.5-cm radius-of-curvature standard high reflector; M3, 5-cm radius-of-curvature DCM; SA, non-epitaxially-grown semiconductor saturable absorber; P, PBH71 prism; OC, 0.5% output coupler.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Interferometric (a) autocorrelation and (b) spectrum of self-starting KLM in Cr:forsterite for non-epitaxially-grown InAs-doped silica films. Self-starting 25-fs pulses with a bandwidth of 91 nm were generated. IAC, interferometric autocorrelation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity autocorrelations at several dispersion operating points for saturable absorber mode locking without KLM. The peak intensity of the long background pulse decreases as the negative dispersion increases. SHG, second-harmonic generation.

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