Abstract

Continuously tunable and coherent radiation in the wide range 56.81618 µm (0.18–5.27 THz) has been achieved as a novel and promising terahertz source based on collinear phase-matched difference frequency generation in a GaSe crystal. This source has the advantages of high coherence, simplicity for tuning, simple alignment, and stable output. The peak output power for the terahertz radiation reaches 69.4 W at a wavelength of 196 µm (1.53 THz), which corresponds to a photon conversion efficiency of 3.3%. A simple optimization of the design can yield a compact terahertz source.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. Q. Chen, Z. Jiang, G. X. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 25, 1122 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (5)

J. L. Johnson, T. D. Dorney, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J.-I. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Friedman, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Lee, R. Meade, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3583 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. G. O’Shea and H. P. Freund, Science 292, 1853 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (5)

1999 (3)

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 899 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Rønne, P. Åstrand, and S. R. Keiding, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2888 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuura, G. A. Blake, R. A. Wyss, J. C. Pearson, C. Kadow, A. W. Jackson, and A. C. Gossard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2872 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. J. Ding and J. B. Khurgin, Opt. Commun. 148, 105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, Opt. Commun. 118, 375 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, Opt. Lett. 20, 1716 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

E. R. Brown, F. W. Smish, and K. A. McIntosh, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

F. Zernike and P. R. Berman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 999 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Åstrand, P.

C. Rønne, P. Åstrand, and S. R. Keiding, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2888 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beltram, F.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berman, P. R.

F. Zernike and P. R. Berman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 999 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Blake, G. A.

S. Matsuura, G. A. Blake, R. A. Wyss, J. C. Pearson, C. Kadow, A. W. Jackson, and A. C. Gossard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2872 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bolivar, P. H.

M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bosserhoff, A.

M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brown, E. R.

E. R. Brown, F. W. Smish, and K. A. McIntosh, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brucherseifer, M.

M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Büttner, R.

M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Davies, A. G.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. J.

Y. J. Ding and I. B. Zotova, Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Ding and J. B. Khurgin, Opt. Commun. 148, 105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dmitriev, V. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999), pp. 119–125, 166–169.

Dorney, T. D.

J. L. Johnson, T. D. Dorney, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Freund, H. P.

P. G. O’Shea and H. P. Freund, Science 292, 1853 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedman, L.

L. Friedman, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Galvanauskas, A.

Y. S. Lee, R. Meade, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3583 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

S. Matsuura, G. A. Blake, R. A. Wyss, J. C. Pearson, C. Kadow, A. W. Jackson, and A. C. Gossard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2872 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

T. I. Jeon, D. Grischkowsky, A. K. Mukherjee, and R. Menon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gurzadyan, G. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999), pp. 119–125, 166–169.

Hatanaka, T.

Hu, B. B.

Imai, K.

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J.-I. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J.-I. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, T. Hatanaka, H. Takahashi, K. Nakamura, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, Opt. Lett. 25, 1714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, A. W.

S. Matsuura, G. A. Blake, R. A. Wyss, J. C. Pearson, C. Kadow, A. W. Jackson, and A. C. Gossard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2872 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, T. I.

T. I. Jeon, D. Grischkowsky, A. K. Mukherjee, and R. Menon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

Jiang, Z.

Johnson, J. L.

J. L. Johnson, T. D. Dorney, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kadow, C.

S. Matsuura, G. A. Blake, R. A. Wyss, J. C. Pearson, C. Kadow, A. W. Jackson, and A. C. Gossard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2872 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J.-I. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, T. Hatanaka, H. Takahashi, K. Nakamura, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, Opt. Lett. 25, 1714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

C. Rønne, P. Åstrand, and S. R. Keiding, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2888 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

Y. J. Ding and J. B. Khurgin, Opt. Commun. 148, 105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, R.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kulevskii, L. A.

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, Opt. Commun. 118, 375 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. S.

Y. S. Lee, R. Meade, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3583 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, S.

S. Matsuura, G. A. Blake, R. A. Wyss, J. C. Pearson, C. Kadow, A. W. Jackson, and A. C. Gossard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2872 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, K. A.

E. R. Brown, F. W. Smish, and K. A. McIntosh, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R.

Y. S. Lee, R. Meade, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3583 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Menon, R.

T. I. Jeon, D. Grischkowsky, A. K. Mukherjee, and R. Menon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J. R.

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 899 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Minamide, H.

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J.-I. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

J. L. Johnson, T. D. Dorney, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, A. K.

T. I. Jeon, D. Grischkowsky, A. K. Mukherjee, and R. Menon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, M.

M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

Nikogosyan, D. N.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999), pp. 119–125, 166–169.

Norris, T. B.

Y. S. Lee, R. Meade, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3583 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

O’Shea, P. G.

P. G. O’Shea and H. P. Freund, Science 292, 1853 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, New York, 1998), Vol. III.

Pearson, J. C.

S. Matsuura, G. A. Blake, R. A. Wyss, J. C. Pearson, C. Kadow, A. W. Jackson, and A. C. Gossard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2872 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rønne, C.

C. Rønne, P. Åstrand, and S. R. Keiding, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2888 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schall, M.

Shikata, J.-I.

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J.-I. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smish, F. W.

E. R. Brown, F. W. Smish, and K. A. McIntosh, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

L. Friedman, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sun, G.

L. Friedman, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

Taniuchi, T.

Tredicucci, A.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, Opt. Commun. 118, 375 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 899 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wyss, R. A.

S. Matsuura, G. A. Blake, R. A. Wyss, J. C. Pearson, C. Kadow, A. W. Jackson, and A. C. Gossard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2872 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G. X.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1988), p. 401.

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike and P. R. Berman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 999 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

Zotova, I. B.

Y. J. Ding and I. B. Zotova, Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

T. I. Jeon, D. Grischkowsky, A. K. Mukherjee, and R. Menon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Lee, R. Meade, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3583 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J.-I. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Friedman, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 899 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuura, G. A. Blake, R. A. Wyss, J. C. Pearson, C. Kadow, A. W. Jackson, and A. C. Gossard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2872 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Johnson, T. D. Dorney, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. R. Brown, F. W. Smish, and K. A. McIntosh, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1480 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

Y. J. Ding and J. B. Khurgin, Opt. Commun. 148, 105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, Opt. Commun. 118, 375 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. J. Ding and I. B. Zotova, Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. Rønne, P. Åstrand, and S. R. Keiding, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2888 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Zernike and P. R. Berman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 999 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

P. G. O’Shea and H. P. Freund, Science 292, 1853 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999), pp. 119–125, 166–169.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, New York, 1998), Vol. III.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1988), p. 401.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for THz radiation based on DFG in a GaSe crystal: M1M7, mirrors; A1, A2, attenuators; I1, I2, irises; WP1, WP2, λ/2 plates; GP1, GP2, Glan polarizers; BS1, 50/50 beam splitter, L1, L2, convex lenses with f=10 and f=20 cm, respectively; PM1, PM2, parabolic mirrors; F1, F2, germanium and black polyethylene filters, respectively. MOPO, master oscillator power oscillator. The etalon is made from two parallel germanium plates mounted upon two mirror mounts on two separate translation stages.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output wavelength versus external PM angle. Inset, output frequency versus external PM angle. Circles and solid curves, respectively, correspond to experimental and calculated results of refractive-index dispersion relations for GaSe in Ref. 23.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ouptut wavelength versus OPO idler wavelength based on DFG. Circles and solid curve correspond to experimental and calculated results, respectively, by use of the photon-energy conservation relation. Inset, measurement of THz wavelength (668 µm) by a scanning Ge etalon. Circles, experimental results; solid curve, B-splined result from data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Peak output power versus output wavelength for three pure GaSe crystals with thicknesses (along the z axis) of 4 mm (triangles), 7 mm (circles), and 15 mm (squares).

Equations (1)

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P1P2=12μ003/2ω12deff2L2n1n2n3P3πw2T1T2T3×exp-α1L1-exp-ΔαL/2ΔαL/22,

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