Abstract

We demonstrate terahertz (THz) imaging with enhanced spatial resolution by a synthetic phased array. A single mirror is used to separately form two different coherent, diffraction-limited THz images of the same point source. The two images are combined to yield a 4× resolution-enhanced image of the source in one dimension.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  2. P. J. Napier, A. R. Thompson, and R. D. Ekers, Proc. IEEE 71, 1295 (1983).
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  3. P. J. Napier, D. S. Bagri, B. G. Clark, A. E. E. Rogers, J. D. Romney, A. R. Thompson, and R. C. Walker, Proc. IEEE 82, 658 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Labeyrie, Astrophys. J. 196, L71 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. R. Hajian and J. T. Armstrong, Sci. Am. 284, 56 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Mensa, High Resolution Radar Imaging (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1981).
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    [CrossRef]
  8. K. McClatchey, M. T. Reiten, and R. A. Cheville, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4485 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. B. Ruffin, J. Decker, L. Sanchez-Palencia, L. Le Hors, J. F. Whitaker, T. B. Norris, and J. V. Rudd, Opt. Lett. 26, 681 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. D. Dorney, J. L. Johnson, J. Van Rudd, R. G. Baraniuk, W. W. Symes, and D. M. Mittleman, Opt. Lett. 26, 1513 (2001).
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  11. B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, Opt. Lett. 20, 1716 (1995).
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  12. D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 69, 1026 (1996).
  14. J. O’Hara and D. Grischkowsky, Opt. Lett. 26, 1918 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2001

1999

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Broquetas, J. Palau, L. Jofre, and A. Cardama, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 69, 1026 (1996).

1995

1994

P. J. Napier, D. S. Bagri, B. G. Clark, A. E. E. Rogers, J. D. Romney, A. R. Thompson, and R. C. Walker, Proc. IEEE 82, 658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983

P. J. Napier, A. R. Thompson, and R. D. Ekers, Proc. IEEE 71, 1295 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1975

A. Labeyrie, Astrophys. J. 196, L71 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1960

M. Ryle and A. Hewish, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 120, 220 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. T.

A. R. Hajian and J. T. Armstrong, Sci. Am. 284, 56 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagri, D. S.

P. J. Napier, D. S. Bagri, B. G. Clark, A. E. E. Rogers, J. D. Romney, A. R. Thompson, and R. C. Walker, Proc. IEEE 82, 658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baraniuk, R. G.

T. D. Dorney, J. L. Johnson, J. Van Rudd, R. G. Baraniuk, W. W. Symes, and D. M. Mittleman, Opt. Lett. 26, 1513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Broquetas, A.

A. Broquetas, J. Palau, L. Jofre, and A. Cardama, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cardama, A.

A. Broquetas, J. Palau, L. Jofre, and A. Cardama, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cheville, R. A.

K. McClatchey, M. T. Reiten, and R. A. Cheville, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4485 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clark, B. G.

P. J. Napier, D. S. Bagri, B. G. Clark, A. E. E. Rogers, J. D. Romney, A. R. Thompson, and R. C. Walker, Proc. IEEE 82, 658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Decker, J.

Dorney, T. D.

Ekers, R. D.

P. J. Napier, A. R. Thompson, and R. D. Ekers, Proc. IEEE 71, 1295 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

J. O’Hara and D. Grischkowsky, Opt. Lett. 26, 1918 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, M.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hajian, A. R.

A. R. Hajian and J. T. Armstrong, Sci. Am. 284, 56 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hewish, A.

M. Ryle and A. Hewish, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 120, 220 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Hewitt, T. D.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 69, 1026 (1996).

Hu, B. B.

Jofre, L.

A. Broquetas, J. Palau, L. Jofre, and A. Cardama, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. L.

Koch, M.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, A.

A. Labeyrie, Astrophys. J. 196, L71 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Le Hors, L.

McClatchey, K.

K. McClatchey, M. T. Reiten, and R. A. Cheville, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4485 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mensa, D.

D. Mensa, High Resolution Radar Imaging (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1981).

Mittleman, D. M.

T. D. Dorney, J. L. Johnson, J. Van Rudd, R. G. Baraniuk, W. W. Symes, and D. M. Mittleman, Opt. Lett. 26, 1513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Napier, P. J.

P. J. Napier, D. S. Bagri, B. G. Clark, A. E. E. Rogers, J. D. Romney, A. R. Thompson, and R. C. Walker, Proc. IEEE 82, 658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Napier, A. R. Thompson, and R. D. Ekers, Proc. IEEE 71, 1295 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Neelamani, R.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T. B.

Nuss, M. C.

O’Hara, J.

Palau, J.

A. Broquetas, J. Palau, L. Jofre, and A. Cardama, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reiten, M. T.

K. McClatchey, M. T. Reiten, and R. A. Cheville, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4485 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, A. E. E.

P. J. Napier, D. S. Bagri, B. G. Clark, A. E. E. Rogers, J. D. Romney, A. R. Thompson, and R. C. Walker, Proc. IEEE 82, 658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Romney, J. D.

P. J. Napier, D. S. Bagri, B. G. Clark, A. E. E. Rogers, J. D. Romney, A. R. Thompson, and R. C. Walker, Proc. IEEE 82, 658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rudd, J. V.

A. B. Ruffin, J. Decker, L. Sanchez-Palencia, L. Le Hors, J. F. Whitaker, T. B. Norris, and J. V. Rudd, Opt. Lett. 26, 681 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ruffin, A. B.

Ryle, M.

M. Ryle and A. Hewish, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 120, 220 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Palencia, L.

Symes, W. W.

Thompson, A. R.

P. J. Napier, D. S. Bagri, B. G. Clark, A. E. E. Rogers, J. D. Romney, A. R. Thompson, and R. C. Walker, Proc. IEEE 82, 658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Napier, A. R. Thompson, and R. D. Ekers, Proc. IEEE 71, 1295 (1983).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Van Rudd, J.

Walker, R. C.

P. J. Napier, D. S. Bagri, B. G. Clark, A. E. E. Rogers, J. D. Romney, A. R. Thompson, and R. C. Walker, Proc. IEEE 82, 658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Whitaker, J. F.

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 69, 1026 (1996).

Zhang, X.-C.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 69, 1026 (1996).

Appl. Phys. B

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. McClatchey, M. T. Reiten, and R. A. Cheville, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4485 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J.

A. Labeyrie, Astrophys. J. 196, L71 (1975).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.

A. Broquetas, J. Palau, L. Jofre, and A. Cardama, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol.

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.

M. Ryle and A. Hewish, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 120, 220 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

P. J. Napier, A. R. Thompson, and R. D. Ekers, Proc. IEEE 71, 1295 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Napier, D. S. Bagri, B. G. Clark, A. E. E. Rogers, J. D. Romney, A. R. Thompson, and R. C. Walker, Proc. IEEE 82, 658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Am.

A. R. Hajian and J. T. Armstrong, Sci. Am. 284, 56 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

D. Mensa, High Resolution Radar Imaging (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1981).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Synthetic, phased-array THz system. The translucent cones show the THz beam. The lower spherical mirror is not physically in the setup. The inset shows a different view of the object and its planes of motion for the two configurations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top, light curve, measurement E1t,0,0, offset +10 pA; bottom, heavy curve; superposition, E1t,0,1.375 mm+E2t,0,1.375 mm, offset -12 pA. The right and left insets are their respective normalized spectra in THz. The peak signal-to-noise ratio for E1 and E2 is 200:1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Side view of the THz imaging system showing the location of the synthetic mirror. The synthetic mirror’s viewpoint of the object being scanned in the xy plane is the same as the actual mirror’s viewpoint of the object being scanned in the xy plane.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized images of a THz point source. a, b, Individual energy images U1 and U2, respectively. c, Composite energy image from the synthetic two-mirror system. d, e, Field images E1 and E2, respectively. f, Synthetic two-mirror field image in the composite image plane with positive and negative values. The contour separation is 0.1.

Equations (2)

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Ux,Y=E1+E22dt=E12+E22+2E1E2dt,
Ux,YU1x,Y+U2x,Y+U12x,Y.

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