Abstract

We report a cholesterol-oleate-doped polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) device that, under laser illumination, exhibits a ring diffraction pattern, the radius of which is controlled by an externally applied voltage. This effect is accurately explained by modeling of the random distribution of spiral cells shown in the microstructure with a voltage-dependent shape variation.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. K. Lynch, Sci. Am. 238(4), 144 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Parviainen, C. F. Bohren, and V. Makela, Appl. Opt. 33, 4548 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Trankle and B. Mielke, Appl. Opt. 33, 4552 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 686.
  5. C. H. Skinner and P. D. Kleiber, Phys. Rev. A 21, 151 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Robertson, A. Smith, J. Duignan, P. Milsom, and G. Bourhill, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1183 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. S. Werbowyj and D. G. Gray, Am. Chem. Soc. 17, 1512 (1984).
  8. A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, C.-R. Lee, and Y.-H. Fan, Opt. Commun. 167, 53 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. G. Wade, Quimica Organica (Prentice-Hall Hispanoamericana, Mexico, 1993).
  10. K. J. Laidler and J. H. Meiser, Fisicoquimica (Compañía Editorial Continental, Mexico, 1997).
  11. Y. Pochi and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1999).
  12. S. D. Jacob, Selected Papers on Liquid Crystal for Optics Vol. MS46 of SPIE Milestone Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1992).
  13. J. W. Doane, in Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Display in Liquid Crystals—Applications and Uses, B. Bahadur, ed. (Word Scientific, Singapore, 1993), Chap. 14, p. 361.
  14. A. J. de Witte, Am. J. Phys. 35, 301 (1967).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Robertson, A. Smith, J. Duignan, P. Milsom, and G. Bourhill, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, C.-R. Lee, and Y.-H. Fan, Opt. Commun. 167, 53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1984 (1)

R. S. Werbowyj and D. G. Gray, Am. Chem. Soc. 17, 1512 (1984).

1980 (1)

C. H. Skinner and P. D. Kleiber, Phys. Rev. A 21, 151 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

D. K. Lynch, Sci. Am. 238(4), 144 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

A. J. de Witte, Am. J. Phys. 35, 301 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 686.

Bourhill, G.

J. Robertson, A. Smith, J. Duignan, P. Milsom, and G. Bourhill, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Witte, A. J.

A. J. de Witte, Am. J. Phys. 35, 301 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Doane, J. W.

J. W. Doane, in Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Display in Liquid Crystals—Applications and Uses, B. Bahadur, ed. (Word Scientific, Singapore, 1993), Chap. 14, p. 361.

Duignan, J.

J. Robertson, A. Smith, J. Duignan, P. Milsom, and G. Bourhill, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y.-H.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, C.-R. Lee, and Y.-H. Fan, Opt. Commun. 167, 53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, C.-R. Lee, and Y.-H. Fan, Opt. Commun. 167, 53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gray, D. G.

R. S. Werbowyj and D. G. Gray, Am. Chem. Soc. 17, 1512 (1984).

Gu, C.

Y. Pochi and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1999).

Jacob, S. D.

S. D. Jacob, Selected Papers on Liquid Crystal for Optics Vol. MS46 of SPIE Milestone Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1992).

Kleiber, P. D.

C. H. Skinner and P. D. Kleiber, Phys. Rev. A 21, 151 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Laidler, K. J.

K. J. Laidler and J. H. Meiser, Fisicoquimica (Compañía Editorial Continental, Mexico, 1997).

Lee, C.-R.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, C.-R. Lee, and Y.-H. Fan, Opt. Commun. 167, 53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, D. K.

D. K. Lynch, Sci. Am. 238(4), 144 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Makela, V.

Meiser, J. H.

K. J. Laidler and J. H. Meiser, Fisicoquimica (Compañía Editorial Continental, Mexico, 1997).

Mielke, B.

Milsom, P.

J. Robertson, A. Smith, J. Duignan, P. Milsom, and G. Bourhill, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Parviainen, P.

Pochi, Y.

Y. Pochi and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1999).

Robertson, J.

J. Robertson, A. Smith, J. Duignan, P. Milsom, and G. Bourhill, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, C. H.

C. H. Skinner and P. D. Kleiber, Phys. Rev. A 21, 151 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A.

J. Robertson, A. Smith, J. Duignan, P. Milsom, and G. Bourhill, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trankle, E.

Tsai, M.-S.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, C.-R. Lee, and Y.-H. Fan, Opt. Commun. 167, 53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wade, L. G.

L. G. Wade, Quimica Organica (Prentice-Hall Hispanoamericana, Mexico, 1993).

Werbowyj, R. S.

R. S. Werbowyj and D. G. Gray, Am. Chem. Soc. 17, 1512 (1984).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 686.

Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

R. S. Werbowyj and D. G. Gray, Am. Chem. Soc. 17, 1512 (1984).

Am. J. Phys. (1)

A. J. de Witte, Am. J. Phys. 35, 301 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Robertson, A. Smith, J. Duignan, P. Milsom, and G. Bourhill, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, C.-R. Lee, and Y.-H. Fan, Opt. Commun. 167, 53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. H. Skinner and P. D. Kleiber, Phys. Rev. A 21, 151 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Am. (1)

D. K. Lynch, Sci. Am. 238(4), 144 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 686.

L. G. Wade, Quimica Organica (Prentice-Hall Hispanoamericana, Mexico, 1993).

K. J. Laidler and J. H. Meiser, Fisicoquimica (Compañía Editorial Continental, Mexico, 1997).

Y. Pochi and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1999).

S. D. Jacob, Selected Papers on Liquid Crystal for Optics Vol. MS46 of SPIE Milestone Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1992).

J. W. Doane, in Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Display in Liquid Crystals—Applications and Uses, B. Bahadur, ed. (Word Scientific, Singapore, 1993), Chap. 14, p. 361.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

First-order annular diffraction pattern with a center spot emerging from our device under He–Ne laser illumination incident (a) in the center and (b) near edge of the device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ring diffraction pattern voltage-dependence radii when (a) no voltage is applied, (b) 25 V is applied. (c) 27 V is applied, and (d) 30 V are applied and the ring disappears. Notice the reduction in ring diameter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ring radius dependence with respect to the voltage applied to the polymeric device. Filled circles, increasing voltage from 0 to 30; filled squares, decreasing voltage from 30 to 0.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Microstructures of the device observed under a microscope exhibit a spiral structure in the droplets 600×.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Model used to explain the diffractive effect of the device. (a) Numerical simulation of the spiral concentric distribution without applied voltage. (b) Ring diffraction pattern calculated from (a). (c) Numerical simulation of the spiral concentric distribution when a voltage is applied; the period is increased with respect to (a). (d) Ring diffraction pattern calculated from (c); notice the shrinkage in radius with respect to (b).

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