Abstract

We have applied the large photovoltage developed across a layer of selectively deposited bacteriorhodopsin to the gate terminal of a monolithically integrated GaAs-based modulation-doped field-effect transistor, which delivers an amplified photoinduced current signal. The integrated biophotoreceiver device exhibits a responsivity of 3.8 A/W. The optoelectronic integrated circuit is achieved by molecular-beam epitaxy of the field-effect transistor’s heterostructure, photolithography, and selective-area bacteriorhodopsin electrodeposition.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

1997

F. T. Hong, Mater. Sci. Eng. C 4, 267 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

K. Fukuzawa, K. Yanagisawa, and H. Kuwano, Sensors Actuators B 30, 121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

C. Gergely, C. Ganea, G. I. Groma, and G. Váró, Biophys. J. 65, 2478 (1993).

1992

T. Miyasaka, K. Koyama, and I. Itoh, Science 255, 342 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

1990

R. R. Birge, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 41, 683 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Henderson, J. M. Baldwin, T. A. Ceska, F. Zemlin, E. Beckmann, and K. H. Downing, J. Mol. Biol. 213, 899 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

A. A. Kononenko, E. P. Lukashev, S. K. Chamorovksy, A. V. Maximychev, S. F. Timashev, L. N. Chekulaeva, A. B. Rubin, and V. Z. Paschenko, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 892, 56 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. Czégé, A. Dér, and L. Zimányi, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 7273 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

G. Váró, Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 32, 301 (1981).

1979

H. G. Khorana, G. E. Gerber, and W. Herlihy, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 5046 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1974

D. Oesterhelt and W. Stoeckenius, Methods Enzymol. 31, 667 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971

A. E. Blaurock and W. Stoeckenius, Nature 233, 152 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, J. M.

R. Henderson, J. M. Baldwin, T. A. Ceska, F. Zemlin, E. Beckmann, and K. H. Downing, J. Mol. Biol. 213, 899 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beckmann, E.

R. Henderson, J. M. Baldwin, T. A. Ceska, F. Zemlin, E. Beckmann, and K. H. Downing, J. Mol. Biol. 213, 899 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birge, R. R.

R. R. Birge, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 41, 683 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Blaurock, A. E.

A. E. Blaurock and W. Stoeckenius, Nature 233, 152 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ceska, T. A.

R. Henderson, J. M. Baldwin, T. A. Ceska, F. Zemlin, E. Beckmann, and K. H. Downing, J. Mol. Biol. 213, 899 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chamorovksy, S. K.

A. A. Kononenko, E. P. Lukashev, S. K. Chamorovksy, A. V. Maximychev, S. F. Timashev, L. N. Chekulaeva, A. B. Rubin, and V. Z. Paschenko, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 892, 56 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chekulaeva, L. N.

A. A. Kononenko, E. P. Lukashev, S. K. Chamorovksy, A. V. Maximychev, S. F. Timashev, L. N. Chekulaeva, A. B. Rubin, and V. Z. Paschenko, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 892, 56 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Czégé, J.

J. Czégé, A. Dér, and L. Zimányi, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 7273 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Dér, A.

J. Czégé, A. Dér, and L. Zimányi, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 7273 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Downing, K. H.

R. Henderson, J. M. Baldwin, T. A. Ceska, F. Zemlin, E. Beckmann, and K. H. Downing, J. Mol. Biol. 213, 899 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuzawa, K.

K. Fukuzawa, K. Yanagisawa, and H. Kuwano, Sensors Actuators B 30, 121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ganea, C.

C. Gergely, C. Ganea, G. I. Groma, and G. Váró, Biophys. J. 65, 2478 (1993).

Gerber, G. E.

H. G. Khorana, G. E. Gerber, and W. Herlihy, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 5046 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gergely, C.

C. Gergely, C. Ganea, G. I. Groma, and G. Váró, Biophys. J. 65, 2478 (1993).

Groma, G. I.

C. Gergely, C. Ganea, G. I. Groma, and G. Váró, Biophys. J. 65, 2478 (1993).

Henderson, R.

R. Henderson, J. M. Baldwin, T. A. Ceska, F. Zemlin, E. Beckmann, and K. H. Downing, J. Mol. Biol. 213, 899 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herlihy, W.

H. G. Khorana, G. E. Gerber, and W. Herlihy, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 5046 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hong, F. T.

F. T. Hong, Mater. Sci. Eng. C 4, 267 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, I.

T. Miyasaka, K. Koyama, and I. Itoh, Science 255, 342 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khorana, H. G.

H. G. Khorana, G. E. Gerber, and W. Herlihy, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 5046 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kononenko, A. A.

A. A. Kononenko, E. P. Lukashev, S. K. Chamorovksy, A. V. Maximychev, S. F. Timashev, L. N. Chekulaeva, A. B. Rubin, and V. Z. Paschenko, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 892, 56 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, K.

T. Miyasaka, K. Koyama, and I. Itoh, Science 255, 342 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuwano, H.

K. Fukuzawa, K. Yanagisawa, and H. Kuwano, Sensors Actuators B 30, 121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

Lukashev, E. P.

A. A. Kononenko, E. P. Lukashev, S. K. Chamorovksy, A. V. Maximychev, S. F. Timashev, L. N. Chekulaeva, A. B. Rubin, and V. Z. Paschenko, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 892, 56 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Maximychev, A. V.

A. A. Kononenko, E. P. Lukashev, S. K. Chamorovksy, A. V. Maximychev, S. F. Timashev, L. N. Chekulaeva, A. B. Rubin, and V. Z. Paschenko, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 892, 56 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Miyasaka, T.

T. Miyasaka, K. Koyama, and I. Itoh, Science 255, 342 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nebenzahi, I.

Oesterhelt, D.

D. Oesterhelt and W. Stoeckenius, Methods Enzymol. 31, 667 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Paschenko, V. Z.

A. A. Kononenko, E. P. Lukashev, S. K. Chamorovksy, A. V. Maximychev, S. F. Timashev, L. N. Chekulaeva, A. B. Rubin, and V. Z. Paschenko, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 892, 56 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, A. B.

A. A. Kononenko, E. P. Lukashev, S. K. Chamorovksy, A. V. Maximychev, S. F. Timashev, L. N. Chekulaeva, A. B. Rubin, and V. Z. Paschenko, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 892, 56 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stoeckenius, W.

D. Oesterhelt and W. Stoeckenius, Methods Enzymol. 31, 667 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Blaurock and W. Stoeckenius, Nature 233, 152 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Takei, H.

Timashev, S. F.

A. A. Kononenko, E. P. Lukashev, S. K. Chamorovksy, A. V. Maximychev, S. F. Timashev, L. N. Chekulaeva, A. B. Rubin, and V. Z. Paschenko, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 892, 56 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Váró, G.

C. Gergely, C. Ganea, G. I. Groma, and G. Váró, Biophys. J. 65, 2478 (1993).

G. Váró, Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 32, 301 (1981).

Yanagisawa, K.

K. Fukuzawa, K. Yanagisawa, and H. Kuwano, Sensors Actuators B 30, 121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zemlin, F.

R. Henderson, J. M. Baldwin, T. A. Ceska, F. Zemlin, E. Beckmann, and K. H. Downing, J. Mol. Biol. 213, 899 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimányi, L.

J. Czégé, A. Dér, and L. Zimányi, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 7273 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung.

G. Váró, Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 32, 301 (1981).

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.

R. R. Birge, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 41, 683 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Biochim. Biophys. Acta

A. A. Kononenko, E. P. Lukashev, S. K. Chamorovksy, A. V. Maximychev, S. F. Timashev, L. N. Chekulaeva, A. B. Rubin, and V. Z. Paschenko, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 892, 56 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

C. Gergely, C. Ganea, G. I. Groma, and G. Váró, Biophys. J. 65, 2478 (1993).

J. Mol. Biol.

R. Henderson, J. M. Baldwin, T. A. Ceska, F. Zemlin, E. Beckmann, and K. H. Downing, J. Mol. Biol. 213, 899 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Sci. Eng. C

F. T. Hong, Mater. Sci. Eng. C 4, 267 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Methods Enzymol.

D. Oesterhelt and W. Stoeckenius, Methods Enzymol. 31, 667 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. E. Blaurock and W. Stoeckenius, Nature 233, 152 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

H. G. Khorana, G. E. Gerber, and W. Herlihy, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 5046 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Czégé, A. Dér, and L. Zimányi, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 7273 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Science

T. Miyasaka, K. Koyama, and I. Itoh, Science 255, 342 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sensors Actuators B

K. Fukuzawa, K. Yanagisawa, and H. Kuwano, Sensors Actuators B 30, 121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured temporal photovoltage response of a weakly oriented bR film from a He–Ne laser. The bR was deposited upon Au and covered with an ITO film. The sample was held under conditions of ambient humidity and room temperature.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Left, schematic and right, equivalent circuit of a monolithically integrated bR/gaAs MODFET photoreceiver structure. (b) Photomicrograph of a fabricated chip, showing MODFET devices and the selectively deposited, oriented, and dried bR film. The MODFET heterostructure was grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. The bR film had a thickness of 100 µm. The square patterns underneath the bR films were extended Ti/Au gates of the FET, which were connected to the FET devices through interconnection metal. The optoelectronic integrated circuit was made by standard photolithography and contact metal deposition techniques.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured temporal photoinduced current response to a 594.1-nm light signal 0.7 mW/mm2 from a monolithically integrated bR/GaAs MODFET photoreceiver under conditions of ambient humidity and room temperature. (b) Measured dependence of the photoreceiver’s response on the intensity of light under conditions of ambient humidity and room temperature. The responsivity of the photoreceiver was 3.8 A/W.

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