Abstract

Color Doppler optical coherence tomography (CDOCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique for micro-meter-scale physiological flow mapping simultaneously with morphological optical coherence tomography imaging. We have developed a novel CDOCT signal-processing strategy capable of imaging physiological flow rates at 8 frames/s. Our new strategy features hardware-implemented digital autocorrelation across subsequent scans, permitting us to measure 300-Hz–8-kHz Doppler shifts upon signals of 0.6-MHz bandwidth. The performance of the CDOCT system was demonstrated in a flow phantom and in vivo in Xenopus laevis.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. J. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 1119 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 1439 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Yazdanfar, M. D. Kulkarni, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 1, 424 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 3598, 168 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. P. Chen, Y. H. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, C. Saxer, S. H. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 114 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 25, 1448 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 188 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, “Real time in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
  10. S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 156 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 3, 219 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. M. Rollins and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 24, 1484 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (3)

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 3598, 168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Chen, Y. H. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 24, 1484 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (3)

Barton, J. K.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 1439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, “Real time in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Chen, Z. P.

de Boer, J. F.

Frostig, R. D.

Z. P. Chen, Y. H. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J. A.

V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 25, 1448 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 24, 1484 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 3598, 168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 3, 219 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yazdanfar, M. D. Kulkarni, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 1, 424 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 1439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, “Real time in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Kulkarni, M. D.

Malekafzali, A.

Milner, T. E.

Nelson, J. S.

Prakash, N.

Z. P. Chen, Y. H. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rollins, A. M.

V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 25, 1448 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 24, 1484 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 3598, 168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 3, 219 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, “Real time in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Saxer, C.

Srinivas, S.

Srinivas, S. M.

Z. P. Chen, Y. H. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ung-arunyawee, R.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Wang, X. J.

Welch, A. J.

Westphal, V.

V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, S. H.

Yazdanfar, S.

V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 25, 1448 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 3598, 168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 3, 219 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yazdanfar, M. D. Kulkarni, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 1, 424 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 1439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, “Real time in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Zhao, Y. H.

Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, C. Saxer, S. H. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Chen, Y. H. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Z. P. Chen, Y. H. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. SPIE (3)

V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 3598, 168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, “Real time in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Real-time, high velocity-resolution CDOCT setup: BPs, bandpass filters; LPs, lowpass filters; LA, logarithmic amplifier; A/D, analog–digital converter; D/A, digital–analog converter; AWG, arbitrary waveform generator; RSOD, rapid-scanning optical delay line; FG, frame grabber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Imaging of a flow phantom. A, probe schematic, showing scanning across a 1-mm tube (inside diameter) with an average Intralipid flow velocity of 4.2 mm/s. B, single frame of real-time overlay of OCT and flow image acquired at 8 frames/s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Demonstration of in vivo real-time Doppler flow imaging. A, Schematic ventral view of a 17-day-old tadpole, Xenopus laevis. The imaging plane is slightly superior to the heart, transecting two branches of the ductus arteriosus. B–E, subsequent frames acquired at 8 frames/s. The blood pulses first through the left artery (B–C) and then, slightly delayed, through the right artery (D).

Equations (9)

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fs=2nt Vs cosθλ0.
Vsminfframe.
g˜nωg,t=g sinωgt+π/2,
g˜n-1ωg,t=g sinωgt+ϑn-1.
R˜τscanωg=g˜nωg,tg˜n-1ωg,t+τscan.
R˜τscanωg=-12g2cosωg2t+τscan+π/2+ϑn-1+12g2 cosωgτscan+π/2-ϑn-1.
R˜τscanfs-sin2πfsτscan-ϑn-1.
Vmax12minbeamsinθ,Iccosθ1τscan.
Vminλ0fscan2nt cosθϑn-1360°.

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