Abstract

Direction-sensitive displacement measurements at diffraction-limited spatial resolution are demonstrated with an interferometric optical-feedback semiconductor laser confocal imaging system. Subwavelength axial movements of the reflecting sample, including the directions of motion, are detected within the depth of field. A comparison of theory and actual instrument performance is presented.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Bonnell, ed., Scanning Probe Microscopy and Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 2000).
  2. L. Wolpert, R. Beddington, J. Brockes, T. Jessell, P. Lawrence, and E. Meyerowitz, Principles of Development (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1998).
  3. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. J. Rodrigo, M. Lim, and C. Saloma, Appl. Opt. 40, 506–513 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Shirai, T. Barnes, and T. Haskell, Opt. Lett. 24, 297–299 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Shirai, T. Barnes, and T. Haskell, Opt. Lett. 25, 773–775 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Juskaitis, N. P. Rea, and T. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 33, 578–584 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Daza, A. Tarun, K. Fujita, and C. Saloma, Opt. Commun. 161, 123–131 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Daza and C. Saloma, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 254–264 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Liu and J. Ohtsubo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1163–1169 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Daza and C. Saloma, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 254–264 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Rodrigo, M. Lim, and C. Saloma, Appl. Opt. 40, 506–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

T. Shirai, T. Barnes, and T. Haskell, Opt. Lett. 24, 297–299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Daza, A. Tarun, K. Fujita, and C. Saloma, Opt. Commun. 161, 123–131 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. Liu and J. Ohtsubo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1163–1169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Barnes, T.

Beddington, R.

L. Wolpert, R. Beddington, J. Brockes, T. Jessell, P. Lawrence, and E. Meyerowitz, Principles of Development (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1998).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Brockes, J.

L. Wolpert, R. Beddington, J. Brockes, T. Jessell, P. Lawrence, and E. Meyerowitz, Principles of Development (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1998).

Daza, M.

M. Daza and C. Saloma, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 254–264 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Daza, A. Tarun, K. Fujita, and C. Saloma, Opt. Commun. 161, 123–131 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

M. Daza, A. Tarun, K. Fujita, and C. Saloma, Opt. Commun. 161, 123–131 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, T.

Jessell, T.

L. Wolpert, R. Beddington, J. Brockes, T. Jessell, P. Lawrence, and E. Meyerowitz, Principles of Development (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1998).

Juskaitis, R.

Lawrence, P.

L. Wolpert, R. Beddington, J. Brockes, T. Jessell, P. Lawrence, and E. Meyerowitz, Principles of Development (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1998).

Lim, M.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu and J. Ohtsubo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1163–1169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meyerowitz, E.

L. Wolpert, R. Beddington, J. Brockes, T. Jessell, P. Lawrence, and E. Meyerowitz, Principles of Development (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1998).

Ohtsubo, J.

Y. Liu and J. Ohtsubo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1163–1169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rea, N. P.

Rodrigo, P. J.

Saloma, C.

P. J. Rodrigo, M. Lim, and C. Saloma, Appl. Opt. 40, 506–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Daza and C. Saloma, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 254–264 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Daza, A. Tarun, K. Fujita, and C. Saloma, Opt. Commun. 161, 123–131 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shirai, T.

Tarun, A.

M. Daza, A. Tarun, K. Fujita, and C. Saloma, Opt. Commun. 161, 123–131 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, T.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolpert, L.

L. Wolpert, R. Beddington, J. Brockes, T. Jessell, P. Lawrence, and E. Meyerowitz, Principles of Development (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1998).

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Daza and C. Saloma, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 254–264 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu and J. Ohtsubo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1163–1169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Daza, A. Tarun, K. Fujita, and C. Saloma, Opt. Commun. 161, 123–131 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

D. Bonnell, ed., Scanning Probe Microscopy and Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 2000).

L. Wolpert, R. Beddington, J. Brockes, T. Jessell, P. Lawrence, and E. Meyerowitz, Principles of Development (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1998).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Confocal imaging with OSMI (R, reference mirror; BS, beam splitter; S, reflecting sample), and (b) reduction of an OSMI to an equivalent Fabry–Perot resonator, where Ma is the SL back facet; Mb is the SL front facet; tb is the Mb transmissivity; tx is the BS transmissivity; ra is the Ma reflectivity; rb is the Mb reflectivity, rx is the BS reflectivity; rs is the S reflectivity; rr is the R reflectivity, and Lo is the distance between Mb and the BS =74 mm. At zero optical path difference, Ls=Lr=133 mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output power P as function of relative S position and direction of motion Ib=60 mA. R is displaced first away from the SL and then toward it about the vertical line (arrows). The initial S position was arbitrarily set.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of theory (curve) and experiment (circles) for output power P.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plots of Pt when R and S are both fixed Ib=55 mA: Interferometric confocal imaging (Lo=74 mm, Ls=133 mm, Lr=133 mm) and OSMI (Lo=70 mm, Ls=111 mm, Lr=116 mm).

Equations (1)

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rb1=tb2tx2rs expj4πλLo+Ls1-rbtx2rs expj4πλLo+Ls+tb2rx2rr expj4πλLo+Lr1-rbrx2rr expj4πλLo+Lr.

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