Abstract

Hybrid glass substrates were prepared by a novel, low-temperature process joining active (Er–Yb codoped) and passive phosphate glass. The resulting hybrid substrates are chemically and physically robust; they can be cut, ground, and polished by conventional, water-based techniques. The entire substrate can be immersed in a molten-salt bath to produce waveguides simultaneously in the active and passive regions. A low reflectance of -34±2 dB was measured at the joint interface with 1531.2-nm light by optical low-coherence reflectometry. Further, a hybrid laser waveguide device exhibited a slope efficiency of 33% at 1540  nm when pumped at 975  nm.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. J. Malone, N. A. Sanford, and J. S. Hayden, Electron. Lett. 29, 691 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, J. S. Hayden, and M. Bendett, Laser Focus World 35(5), 203 (1999).
  3. D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, and J. S. Hayden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 789 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Jaouën, L. du Mouza, D. Barbier, J. Delavaux, and P. Bruno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1105 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Camy, J. E. Roman, F. W. Willems, M. Hempstead, J. D. van der Plaats, C. Prel, A. Beguin, A. M. J. Koonen, J. S. Wilkinson, and C. Lerminiaux, Electron. Lett. 34, 321 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. The National Institute of Standards and Technology does not endorse this particular company or glass technology; other technologies may be suitable for the applications described herein.
  7. D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. S. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Mechels, K. Takada, and K. Okamoto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 857 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. S. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

S. Mechels, K. Takada, and K. Okamoto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 857 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, J. S. Hayden, and M. Bendett, Laser Focus World 35(5), 203 (1999).

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, and J. S. Hayden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 789 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jaouën, L. du Mouza, D. Barbier, J. Delavaux, and P. Bruno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. Camy, J. E. Roman, F. W. Willems, M. Hempstead, J. D. van der Plaats, C. Prel, A. Beguin, A. M. J. Koonen, J. S. Wilkinson, and C. Lerminiaux, Electron. Lett. 34, 321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. J. Malone, N. A. Sanford, and J. S. Hayden, Electron. Lett. 29, 691 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barbier, D.

Y. Jaouën, L. du Mouza, D. Barbier, J. Delavaux, and P. Bruno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beguin, A.

P. Camy, J. E. Roman, F. W. Willems, M. Hempstead, J. D. van der Plaats, C. Prel, A. Beguin, A. M. J. Koonen, J. S. Wilkinson, and C. Lerminiaux, Electron. Lett. 34, 321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bendett, M.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, J. S. Hayden, and M. Bendett, Laser Focus World 35(5), 203 (1999).

Bruno, P.

Y. Jaouën, L. du Mouza, D. Barbier, J. Delavaux, and P. Bruno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Camy, P.

P. Camy, J. E. Roman, F. W. Willems, M. Hempstead, J. D. van der Plaats, C. Prel, A. Beguin, A. M. J. Koonen, J. S. Wilkinson, and C. Lerminiaux, Electron. Lett. 34, 321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Delavaux, J.

Y. Jaouën, L. du Mouza, D. Barbier, J. Delavaux, and P. Bruno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

du Mouza, L.

Y. Jaouën, L. du Mouza, D. Barbier, J. Delavaux, and P. Bruno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fontaine, N.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. S. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Funk, D. S.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. S. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, J. S. Hayden, and M. Bendett, Laser Focus World 35(5), 203 (1999).

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, and J. S. Hayden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 789 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, J. S.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. S. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, J. S. Hayden, and M. Bendett, Laser Focus World 35(5), 203 (1999).

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, and J. S. Hayden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 789 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Malone, N. A. Sanford, and J. S. Hayden, Electron. Lett. 29, 691 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hempstead, M.

P. Camy, J. E. Roman, F. W. Willems, M. Hempstead, J. D. van der Plaats, C. Prel, A. Beguin, A. M. J. Koonen, J. S. Wilkinson, and C. Lerminiaux, Electron. Lett. 34, 321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Houde-Walter, S. N.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. S. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jaouën, Y.

Y. Jaouën, L. du Mouza, D. Barbier, J. Delavaux, and P. Bruno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koonen, A. M. J.

P. Camy, J. E. Roman, F. W. Willems, M. Hempstead, J. D. van der Plaats, C. Prel, A. Beguin, A. M. J. Koonen, J. S. Wilkinson, and C. Lerminiaux, Electron. Lett. 34, 321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lerminiaux, C.

P. Camy, J. E. Roman, F. W. Willems, M. Hempstead, J. D. van der Plaats, C. Prel, A. Beguin, A. M. J. Koonen, J. S. Wilkinson, and C. Lerminiaux, Electron. Lett. 34, 321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. C.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. S. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Malone, K. J.

K. J. Malone, N. A. Sanford, and J. S. Hayden, Electron. Lett. 29, 691 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mechels, S.

S. Mechels, K. Takada, and K. Okamoto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 857 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Obarski, G. E.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. S. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

S. Mechels, K. Takada, and K. Okamoto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 857 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peskin, A. P.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. S. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peters, P. M.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. S. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prel, C.

P. Camy, J. E. Roman, F. W. Willems, M. Hempstead, J. D. van der Plaats, C. Prel, A. Beguin, A. M. J. Koonen, J. S. Wilkinson, and C. Lerminiaux, Electron. Lett. 34, 321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Roman, J. E.

P. Camy, J. E. Roman, F. W. Willems, M. Hempstead, J. D. van der Plaats, C. Prel, A. Beguin, A. M. J. Koonen, J. S. Wilkinson, and C. Lerminiaux, Electron. Lett. 34, 321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sanford, N. A.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, and J. S. Hayden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 789 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, J. S. Hayden, and M. Bendett, Laser Focus World 35(5), 203 (1999).

K. J. Malone, N. A. Sanford, and J. S. Hayden, Electron. Lett. 29, 691 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sanford, N. S.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. S. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takada, K.

S. Mechels, K. Takada, and K. Okamoto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 857 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van der Plaats, J. D.

P. Camy, J. E. Roman, F. W. Willems, M. Hempstead, J. D. van der Plaats, C. Prel, A. Beguin, A. M. J. Koonen, J. S. Wilkinson, and C. Lerminiaux, Electron. Lett. 34, 321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Veasey, D. L.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. S. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, J. S. Hayden, and M. Bendett, Laser Focus World 35(5), 203 (1999).

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, and J. S. Hayden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 789 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

P. Camy, J. E. Roman, F. W. Willems, M. Hempstead, J. D. van der Plaats, C. Prel, A. Beguin, A. M. J. Koonen, J. S. Wilkinson, and C. Lerminiaux, Electron. Lett. 34, 321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Willems, F. W.

P. Camy, J. E. Roman, F. W. Willems, M. Hempstead, J. D. van der Plaats, C. Prel, A. Beguin, A. M. J. Koonen, J. S. Wilkinson, and C. Lerminiaux, Electron. Lett. 34, 321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Young, M.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. S. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, and J. S. Hayden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 789 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. J. Malone, N. A. Sanford, and J. S. Hayden, Electron. Lett. 29, 691 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Camy, J. E. Roman, F. W. Willems, M. Hempstead, J. D. van der Plaats, C. Prel, A. Beguin, A. M. J. Koonen, J. S. Wilkinson, and C. Lerminiaux, Electron. Lett. 34, 321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S. Mechels, K. Takada, and K. Okamoto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 857 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jaouën, L. du Mouza, D. Barbier, J. Delavaux, and P. Bruno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. S. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laser Focus World (1)

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, J. S. Hayden, and M. Bendett, Laser Focus World 35(5), 203 (1999).

Other (1)

The National Institute of Standards and Technology does not endorse this particular company or glass technology; other technologies may be suitable for the applications described herein.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph of (a) the hybrid preform, (b) the hybrid glass substrates, and (c) the hybrid disk.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Surface profiles running parallel to the direction of the ion-exchanged waveguides and across the joint interface, showing the relative etching of the waveguide in each region as a result of exposure to molten KNO3. Note that undoped refers to the passive glass and doped to the active portion of the hybrid glass substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Surface profile of an ion-exchanged waveguide crossing the joint interface between passive (left) and active (right) phosphate glass. The ion-exchanged surfaces are optically smooth but were etched to 0.50.9 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of 1540-nm output power on 975-nm pump power for a waveguide laser fabricated in a hybrid substrate and one fabricated in a monolithic, active substrate. The dotted lines represent least-squares linear fits to the data. The active length was 1.1  cm for the hybrid waveguide and 1.3   cm for the monolithic waveguide. The cavity output coupling was 20% for both lasers.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Doping Levels and Properties of Active and Passive Phosphate Glassa

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