Abstract

We describe a fast optical recording material based on a dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film. A holographic grating is written in this film with a single Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulse that has a duration of 6 ns. Such a grating is due to the reorientation effect of the liquid-crystal molecules through interaction with the photoinduced adsorption of the doped azo dyes. Experimental results indicate that the grating thus formed is permanent but electrically switchable.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Fujiwara and K. Nakagawa, Opt. Commun. 66, 307 (1988).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. F. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature 351, 49 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. C. Khoo, H. Li, and Y. Liang, Opt. Lett. 19, 1723 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Simoni, O. Francescangeli, Y. Reznikov, and S. Slussarenko, Opt. Lett. 22, 549 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, Opt. Lett. 22, 1144 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Golemme, B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, and N. Pey-ghambarian, Opt. Lett. 22, 1226 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, Opt. Lett. 23, 1505 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, and V. Natarajan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, L.-J. Huang, and T.-C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2572 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Serak and A. Antolykovalev, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 417 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Lucchetti, F. Simoni, and Y. Reznikov, Opt. Lett. 24, 1062 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. The prepolymer NOA65 was purchased from Norland Products, Inc., New Brunswick, N. J.
  15. D. Voloschenko, A. Khyzhnyak, Y. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 566 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Andrienko, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 329, 613 (1999).
  17. D. Voloschenko and O. D. Lavrentovich, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4843 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, L.-J. Huang, and T.-C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2572 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Andrienko, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 329, 613 (1999).

D. Voloschenko and O. D. Lavrentovich, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Lucchetti, F. Simoni, and Y. Reznikov, Opt. Lett. 24, 1062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, Opt. Lett. 23, 1505 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Serak and A. Antolykovalev, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

D. Voloschenko, A. Khyzhnyak, Y. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

I. C. Khoo, H. Li, and Y. Liang, Opt. Lett. 19, 1723 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, and V. Natarajan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moer-ner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

H. Fujiwara and K. Nakagawa, Opt. Commun. 66, 307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Andrienko, D.

D. Andrienko, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 329, 613 (1999).

Antolykovalev, A.

S. Serak and A. Antolykovalev, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cipparrone, G.

Ducharme, S.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moer-ner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedorenko, D.

D. Andrienko, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 329, 613 (1999).

Francescangeli, O.

D. Andrienko, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 329, 613 (1999).

F. Simoni, O. Francescangeli, Y. Reznikov, and S. Slussarenko, Opt. Lett. 22, 549 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, L.-J. Huang, and T.-C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2572 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, H.

H. Fujiwara and K. Nakagawa, Opt. Commun. 66, 307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gibbons, W. M.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Golemme, A.

Huang, L.-J.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, L.-J. Huang, and T.-C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2572 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawatsuki, N.

Khoo, I. C.

Khyzhnyak, A.

D. Voloschenko, A. Khyzhnyak, Y. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kippelen, B.

Lavrentovich, O. D.

D. Voloschenko and O. D. Lavrentovich, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Liang, Y.

Liu, T.-C.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, L.-J. Huang, and T.-C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2572 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lucchetti, L.

Mazzulla, A.

Moerner, W. F.

W. F. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moer-ner, W. E.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moer-ner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakagawa, K.

H. Fujiwara and K. Nakagawa, Opt. Commun. 66, 307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, V.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, and V. Natarajan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ono, H.

Pey-ghambarian, N.

Reshetnyak, V.

D. Voloschenko, A. Khyzhnyak, Y. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reznikov, Y.

Reznikov, Yu.

D. Andrienko, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 329, 613 (1999).

Scott, J. C.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moer-ner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serak, S.

S. Serak and A. Antolykovalev, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, P. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Silence, S. M.

W. F. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Simoni, F.

Slussarenko, S.

D. Andrienko, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 329, 613 (1999).

F. Simoni, O. Francescangeli, Y. Reznikov, and S. Slussarenko, Opt. Lett. 22, 549 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, S. T.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, and V. Natarajan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Swetlin, B. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, and V. Natarajan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M.-S.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, L.-J. Huang, and T.-C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2572 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tweig, R. J.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moer-ner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volodin, B. L.

Voloschenko, D.

D. Voloschenko and O. D. Lavrentovich, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Voloschenko, A. Khyzhnyak, Y. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, and V. Natarajan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, L.-J. Huang, and T.-C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2572 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

W. F. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

D. Voloschenko and O. D. Lavrentovich, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

D. Voloschenko, A. Khyzhnyak, Y. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

D. Andrienko, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 329, 613 (1999).

S. Serak and A. Antolykovalev, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

H. Fujiwara and K. Nakagawa, Opt. Commun. 66, 307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moer-ner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

The prepolymer NOA65 was purchased from Norland Products, Inc., New Brunswick, N. J.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for studying fast recording of a holographic grating in a DDPDLC film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Grating image observed under a cross-polarized microscope. The polarizing axis of one polarizer is parallel to the grating lines. The grating spacing is 30 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurements of the variations of the first-order diffracted intensity of a He–Ne probe laser incident normally onto a grating written with the setup shown in Fig.  1 with (a) TE-polarized and (b) TM-polarized Nd:YAG pulses with respect to polarization angle φ of the probe beam.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simplified side-view configurations of the LC molecular orientation of the grating written by the setup shown in Fig.  1 with (a) TE-polarized and (b) TM-polarized Nd:YAG pulses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electrical switching effect of the grating. Probed by a He–Ne laser beam, the grating yields the bottom diffraction image without applied voltage. Application of an ac voltage of 140 V changes the lower into the upper image.

Equations (2)

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ΛLφ=0=navedLC+npdp,
ΛHφ=0=ndLc+npdp,

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