Abstract

We present a novel interferometer for measuring angular distributions of backscattered light. The new system exploits a low-coherence source in a modified Michelson interferometer to provide depth resolution, as in optical coherence tomography, but includes an imaging system that permits the angle of the reference field to be varied in the detector plane by simple translation of an optical element. We employ this system to examine the angular distribution of light scattered by polystyrene microspheres. The measured data indicate that size information can be recovered from angular-scattering distributions and that the coherence length of the source influences the applicability of Mie theory.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. Backman and the research group of M. S. Feld, Nature 406, 35 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 138 (2000).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Drezek, A. Dunn, and R. Richards-Kortum, Appl. Opt. 38, 3651 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Yang, K. An, L. T. Perleman, R. R. Dusari, and M. S. Feld, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 866 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Wax and J. E. Thomas, Opt. Lett. 21, 1427 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Wax and J. E. Thomas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1896 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Wax, S. Bali, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 66 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A detailed examination of the properties of 4f imaging systems using Fourier optics cast in the form of Wigner distributions can be found in A. Wax, “Optical phase space distributions for coherence tomography,” Ph.D. dissertation (Duke University, Durham, N.C., 1999).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Hellmuth, Proc. SPIE 2962, 228 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

A. Wax, S. Bali, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman and the research group of M. S. Feld, Nature 406, 35 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 138 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

C. Yang, K. An, L. T. Perleman, R. R. Dusari, and M. S. Feld, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A detailed examination of the properties of 4f imaging systems using Fourier optics cast in the form of Wigner distributions can be found in A. Wax, “Optical phase space distributions for coherence tomography,” Ph.D. dissertation (Duke University, Durham, N.C., 1999).

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, A. Dunn, and R. Richards-Kortum, Appl. Opt. 38, 3651 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1996

1995

1991

D. Huang and the research group of J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, K.

C. Yang, K. An, L. T. Perleman, R. R. Dusari, and M. S. Feld, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Backman, V.

V. Backman and the research group of M. S. Feld, Nature 406, 35 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bali, S.

A. Wax, S. Bali, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonner, R. F.

Drezek, R.

Dunn, A.

Dusari, R. R.

C. Yang, K. An, L. T. Perleman, R. R. Dusari, and M. S. Feld, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

V. Backman and the research group of M. S. Feld, Nature 406, 35 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yang, K. An, L. T. Perleman, R. R. Dusari, and M. S. Feld, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang and the research group of J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hellmuth, T.

T. Hellmuth, Proc. SPIE 2962, 228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang and the research group of J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perleman, L. T.

C. Yang, K. An, L. T. Perleman, R. R. Dusari, and M. S. Feld, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R.

Schmitt, J. M.

Thomas, J. E.

Wax, A.

A. Wax, S. Bali, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A detailed examination of the properties of 4f imaging systems using Fourier optics cast in the form of Wigner distributions can be found in A. Wax, “Optical phase space distributions for coherence tomography,” Ph.D. dissertation (Duke University, Durham, N.C., 1999).

A. Wax and J. E. Thomas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1896 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Wax and J. E. Thomas, Opt. Lett. 21, 1427 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiang, S. H.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yadlowsky, M. J.

Yang, C.

C. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 138 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yang, K. An, L. T. Perleman, R. R. Dusari, and M. S. Feld, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

J. Biomed. Opt.

C. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 138 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

C. Yang, K. An, L. T. Perleman, R. R. Dusari, and M. S. Feld, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nature

V. Backman and the research group of M. S. Feld, Nature 406, 35 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Wax, S. Bali, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

T. Hellmuth, Proc. SPIE 2962, 228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Huang and the research group of J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A detailed examination of the properties of 4f imaging systems using Fourier optics cast in the form of Wigner distributions can be found in A. Wax, “Optical phase space distributions for coherence tomography,” Ph.D. dissertation (Duke University, Durham, N.C., 1999).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the interferometer system. The photocurrent is digitized by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and recorded with a PC. See text for other definitions. (b) Ray-trace diagram showing the effect of translating lens L2 by a distance Δy, resulting in the reference field’s crossing the detector at an angle θT.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Heterodyne beat intensity as a function of sample displacement for selected scattering angles (points, data; lines, exponential fits). The sample used to obtain these data was 6.1μm polystyrene microspheres suspended in water.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Angular distributions for the fitted A parameter for media consisting of (a) 1.9-, (b) 4.6-, and(c) 6.1μm-diameter microspheres. Increasing the coherence length of the source alters the angular scattering distribution (d) of the 6.1μm microspheres.

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