Abstract

For lumped-element electro-optic modulators, the sensitivity ϕ/V of the phase, ϕ, in response to an applied voltage V is related to the optical group delay, Tg, and the bandwidth, Δω. This relationship imposes a fundamental trade-off between the sensitivity and the bandwidth of electro-optic modulators: ϕ/VΔω=dn/dVω/n, where n is the optical index. A similar relationship for traveling-wave modulators sets an upper limit on ϕ/V that is proportional to Tg.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. I. Ackerman, C. Cox, G. Betts, H. Roussell, F. O’Donnell, and K. Ray, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 46, 2025 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Kokobun, S. Kubota, and S. T. Chu, Electron. Lett. 37, 90 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. K. Chin and S. T. Ho, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1433 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and A. Tervonen, Proc. SPIE 1794, 366 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Koshiba, Y. Tsuji, and M. Nishio, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 47, 1627 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W.-K. Wang, R. W. Smith, and P. J. Anthony, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2250 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. B. Khurgin, J. U. Kang, and Y. J. Ding, Opt. Lett. 25, 70 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Kokobun, S. Kubota, and S. T. Chu, Electron. Lett. 37, 90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

M. Koshiba, Y. Tsuji, and M. Nishio, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 47, 1627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. K. Chin and S. T. Ho, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1433 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Ackerman, C. Cox, G. Betts, H. Roussell, F. O’Donnell, and K. Ray, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 46, 2025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

W.-K. Wang, R. W. Smith, and P. J. Anthony, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and A. Tervonen, Proc. SPIE 1794, 366 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, E. I.

E. I. Ackerman, C. Cox, G. Betts, H. Roussell, F. O’Donnell, and K. Ray, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 46, 2025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anthony, P. J.

W.-K. Wang, R. W. Smith, and P. J. Anthony, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Betts, G.

E. I. Ackerman, C. Cox, G. Betts, H. Roussell, F. O’Donnell, and K. Ray, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 46, 2025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chin, M. K.

Chu, S. T.

Y. Kokobun, S. Kubota, and S. T. Chu, Electron. Lett. 37, 90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cox, C.

E. I. Ackerman, C. Cox, G. Betts, H. Roussell, F. O’Donnell, and K. Ray, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 46, 2025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. J.

Ho, S. T.

Honkanen, S.

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and A. Tervonen, Proc. SPIE 1794, 366 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

Khurgin, J. B.

Kokobun, Y.

Y. Kokobun, S. Kubota, and S. T. Chu, Electron. Lett. 37, 90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

M. Koshiba, Y. Tsuji, and M. Nishio, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 47, 1627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, S.

Y. Kokobun, S. Kubota, and S. T. Chu, Electron. Lett. 37, 90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and A. Tervonen, Proc. SPIE 1794, 366 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nishio, M.

M. Koshiba, Y. Tsuji, and M. Nishio, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 47, 1627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O’Donnell, F.

E. I. Ackerman, C. Cox, G. Betts, H. Roussell, F. O’Donnell, and K. Ray, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 46, 2025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ray, K.

E. I. Ackerman, C. Cox, G. Betts, H. Roussell, F. O’Donnell, and K. Ray, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 46, 2025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roussell, H.

E. I. Ackerman, C. Cox, G. Betts, H. Roussell, F. O’Donnell, and K. Ray, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 46, 2025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. W.

W.-K. Wang, R. W. Smith, and P. J. Anthony, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tervonen, A.

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and A. Tervonen, Proc. SPIE 1794, 366 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsuji, Y.

M. Koshiba, Y. Tsuji, and M. Nishio, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 47, 1627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. J.

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and A. Tervonen, Proc. SPIE 1794, 366 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.-K.

W.-K. Wang, R. W. Smith, and P. J. Anthony, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Kokobun, S. Kubota, and S. T. Chu, Electron. Lett. 37, 90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. (2)

M. Koshiba, Y. Tsuji, and M. Nishio, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 47, 1627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Ackerman, C. Cox, G. Betts, H. Roussell, F. O’Donnell, and K. Ray, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 46, 2025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

W.-K. Wang, R. W. Smith, and P. J. Anthony, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Chin and S. T. Ho, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1433 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and A. Tervonen, Proc. SPIE 1794, 366 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Lumped-element electro-optic modulator in which the region inside the box has a spatially uniform index that is varied through the application of a voltage V.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Guided-optical structures with dispersive propagation paths: (a) chirped grating reflector, (b) Fabry–Perot resonator with grating reflectors, (c) side-coupled resonant ring.

Equations (5)

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ϕ/V=dn/dVω/nT.
ϕ/VΔω=dn/dVω/n.
ϕω,n=arctanIm Hω,n/Re Hω,n,
ϕ/n=ω/nϕ/ω=ω/nTg.
ϕ/Vdn/dVmaxω/nTg,

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