Abstract

A scheme for molecular tagging velocimetry is presented that can be used in air flows without any kind of seeding. The method is based on the local and instantaneous creation of nitric oxide (NO) molecules from N2 and O2 in the waist region of a focused ArF excimer laser beam. This NO distribution is advected by the flow and can be visualized any time later by laser-induced fluorescence in the γ bands. The creation of NO is confirmed by use of an excitation spectrum. Two examples of the application of the new scheme for air-flow velocimetry are given in which single laser pulses are used for creation and visualization of NO.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  15. R. P. Wayne, Chemistry of Atmospheres, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, Oxford, 1991) see, e.g., Table  6.1.

1999

C. Orlemann, Ch. Schulz, and J. Wolfrum, Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 15 (1999).

S. Krüger and G. Grünefeld, Appl. Phys. B 69, 509 (1999).

B. Stier and M. M. Koochesfahani, Exp. Fluids 26, 297 (1999).

L. A. Ribarov, J. A. Wehrmeyer, F. Batliwala, R. W. Pitz, and P. D. DeBarber, AIAA J 37, 708 (1999).

H. Finke, H. Spiecker, and P. Andresen, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 4777 (1999).

1997

P. Barker, A. Bishop, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Appl. Phys. B 64, 369 (1997).

A. Noullez, G. Wallace, W. Lempert, R. B. Miles, and U. Frisch, J. Fluid Mech. 339, 287 (1997).

1996

1989

1987

1984

B. Hiller, R. A. Booman, C. Hassa, and R. K. Hanson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 1964 (1984).

1972

P. H. Kruppenie, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 1, 423 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Andresen, P.

H. Finke, H. Spiecker, and P. Andresen, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 4777 (1999).

Barker, P.

P. Barker, A. Bishop, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Appl. Phys. B 64, 369 (1997).

Batliwala, F.

L. A. Ribarov, J. A. Wehrmeyer, F. Batliwala, R. W. Pitz, and P. D. DeBarber, AIAA J 37, 708 (1999).

Bishop, A.

P. Barker, A. Bishop, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Appl. Phys. B 64, 369 (1997).

Boedeker, L. R.

Booman, R. A.

B. Hiller, R. A. Booman, C. Hassa, and R. K. Hanson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 1964 (1984).

Brown, M. S.

Brown, Th. M.

Chen, T. H.

L. P. Goss, T. H. Chen, D. D. Trump, B. Sarka, and A. S. Nejad, (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1991).

Cohen, C.

Connors, J.

Crosley, D. R.

J. Luque and D. R. Crosley, LIFBASE database and spectral simulation program, (SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif., 1999).

DeBarber, P. A.

DeBarber, P. D.

L. A. Ribarov, J. A. Wehrmeyer, F. Batliwala, R. W. Pitz, and P. D. DeBarber, AIAA J 37, 708 (1999).

Finke, H.

H. Finke, H. Spiecker, and P. Andresen, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 4777 (1999).

Frisch, U.

A. Noullez, G. Wallace, W. Lempert, R. B. Miles, and U. Frisch, J. Fluid Mech. 339, 287 (1997).

Goss, L. P.

L. P. Goss, T. H. Chen, D. D. Trump, B. Sarka, and A. S. Nejad, (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1991).

Grünefeld, G.

S. Krüger and G. Grünefeld, Appl. Phys. B 69, 509 (1999).

Hanson, R. K.

B. Hiller, R. A. Booman, C. Hassa, and R. K. Hanson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 1964 (1984).

Hassa, C.

B. Hiller, R. A. Booman, C. Hassa, and R. K. Hanson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 1964 (1984).

Hiller, B.

B. Hiller, R. A. Booman, C. Hassa, and R. K. Hanson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 1964 (1984).

Howard, P.

Huang, S.

Koochesfahani, M. M.

B. Stier and M. M. Koochesfahani, Exp. Fluids 26, 297 (1999).

Krüger, S.

S. Krüger and G. Grünefeld, Appl. Phys. B 69, 509 (1999).

Kruppenie, P. H.

P. H. Kruppenie, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 1, 423 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lempert, W.

A. Noullez, G. Wallace, W. Lempert, R. B. Miles, and U. Frisch, J. Fluid Mech. 339, 287 (1997).

Luque, J.

J. Luque and D. R. Crosley, LIFBASE database and spectral simulation program, (SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif., 1999).

Miles, R.

Miles, R. B.

A. Noullez, G. Wallace, W. Lempert, R. B. Miles, and U. Frisch, J. Fluid Mech. 339, 287 (1997).

Nandula, S. P.

Nejad, A. S.

L. P. Goss, T. H. Chen, D. D. Trump, B. Sarka, and A. S. Nejad, (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1991).

Noullez, A.

A. Noullez, G. Wallace, W. Lempert, R. B. Miles, and U. Frisch, J. Fluid Mech. 339, 287 (1997).

Orlemann, C.

C. Orlemann, Ch. Schulz, and J. Wolfrum, Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 15 (1999).

Pitz, R. W.

L. A. Ribarov, J. A. Wehrmeyer, F. Batliwala, R. W. Pitz, and P. D. DeBarber, AIAA J 37, 708 (1999).

R. W. Pitz, Th. M. Brown, S. P. Nandula, P. A. Skaggs, P. A. DeBarber, M. S. Brown, and J. Segall, Opt. Lett. 21, 755 (1996).
[PubMed]

Ribarov, L. A.

L. A. Ribarov, J. A. Wehrmeyer, F. Batliwala, R. W. Pitz, and P. D. DeBarber, AIAA J 37, 708 (1999).

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

P. Barker, A. Bishop, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Appl. Phys. B 64, 369 (1997).

Russell, G.

Sarka, B.

L. P. Goss, T. H. Chen, D. D. Trump, B. Sarka, and A. S. Nejad, (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1991).

Schulz, Ch.

C. Orlemann, Ch. Schulz, and J. Wolfrum, Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 15 (1999).

Segall, J.

Skaggs, P. A.

Spiecker, H.

H. Finke, H. Spiecker, and P. Andresen, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 4777 (1999).

Stier, B.

B. Stier and M. M. Koochesfahani, Exp. Fluids 26, 297 (1999).

Trump, D. D.

L. P. Goss, T. H. Chen, D. D. Trump, B. Sarka, and A. S. Nejad, (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1991).

Wallace, G.

A. Noullez, G. Wallace, W. Lempert, R. B. Miles, and U. Frisch, J. Fluid Mech. 339, 287 (1997).

Wayne, R. P.

R. P. Wayne, Chemistry of Atmospheres, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, Oxford, 1991) see, e.g., Table  6.1.

Wehrmeyer, J. A.

L. A. Ribarov, J. A. Wehrmeyer, F. Batliwala, R. W. Pitz, and P. D. DeBarber, AIAA J 37, 708 (1999).

Wolfrum, J.

C. Orlemann, Ch. Schulz, and J. Wolfrum, Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 15 (1999).

AIAA J

L. A. Ribarov, J. A. Wehrmeyer, F. Batliwala, R. W. Pitz, and P. D. DeBarber, AIAA J 37, 708 (1999).

Appl. Phys. B

S. Krüger and G. Grünefeld, Appl. Phys. B 69, 509 (1999).

P. Barker, A. Bishop, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Appl. Phys. B 64, 369 (1997).

Chem. Phys. Lett.

C. Orlemann, Ch. Schulz, and J. Wolfrum, Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 15 (1999).

Exp. Fluids

B. Stier and M. M. Koochesfahani, Exp. Fluids 26, 297 (1999).

J. Chem. Phys.

H. Finke, H. Spiecker, and P. Andresen, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 4777 (1999).

J. Fluid Mech.

A. Noullez, G. Wallace, W. Lempert, R. B. Miles, and U. Frisch, J. Fluid Mech. 339, 287 (1997).

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data

P. H. Kruppenie, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 1, 423 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

B. Hiller, R. A. Booman, C. Hassa, and R. K. Hanson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 1964 (1984).

Other

L. P. Goss, T. H. Chen, D. D. Trump, B. Sarka, and A. S. Nejad, (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1991).

R. P. Wayne, Chemistry of Atmospheres, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, Oxford, 1991) see, e.g., Table  6.1.

J. Luque and D. R. Crosley, LIFBASE database and spectral simulation program, (SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif., 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. Air-flow direction is perpendicular to the plane of the page.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Part of the NO (0, 0) γ-band excitation spectrum, recorded 1 μs after creation of the NO molecules by the excimer laser (solid curve). Dashed curve, simulation (offset for clarity) made with LIFBASE13 for 300  K. The arrow marks the probe laser wavelength used in the flow visualization experiments. (1Å=0.1 nm.)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single-shot tagging images in a laminar dry-air flow at several time delays Δt (in microseconds, as indicated) between write and read lasers. The flow goes top down and is much wider than the field of view. The scale bar at the lower left corresponds to 0.5  mm. Fluorescence intensity is indicated on a linear gray scale (black is maximum); the images are individually scaled to enhance contrast.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Several examples of single-shot tagging images of a pulsed dry-air flow into ambient air at various time delays between write and read lasers (other details as in Fig.  3).

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