Abstract

A novel miniature integrated-optical sensor for versatile multichannel applications is described. Wavelength-modulation techniques using laser diodes (vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers) are used to interrogate multiple-waveguide sensing regions on a single integrated-optical chip for accurate measurement of effective refractive-index changes at a high data rate. With the experimental miniature sensor system, a resolution of ΔNPP=10-7 (short term, peak to peak) of the effective refractive index was demonstrated. In terms of surface-mass coverage, this resolution corresponds to ΔΓPP=130 fg/mm2.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. BIOS-1 input grating-coupler instrument, Artificial Sensing Instruments AG, Zurich Switzerland.
  2. J. Dübendorfer and R. E. Kunz, Appl. Opt. 37, 1890 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Karlsson and R. Stahlberg, Anal. Biochem. 228, 274 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. BIAcore and BIAlite surface-plasmon resonance biosensors; Biocore, Uppsala, Sweden.
  5. R. Cush, J. M. Cronin, W. J. Stewart, C. H. Maule, J. Molloy, and N. J. Goddard, Biosensors Bioelectron. 8, 347 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. IAsys resonant mirror biosensor sytem, Affinity Sensors, Cambridge, UK.
  7. W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sensors Actuators B 31, 203 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sensors Actuators B 10, 209 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Brandenburg, Sensors Actuators B 38–39, 266 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Dübendorfer and R. E. Kunz, Sensors Actuators B 38–39, 116 (1996).
  11. K. Gulden, M. Moser, and S. Lüscher, Proc. SPIE 2682, 125 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Ph. M. Nellen and W. Lukosz, Sensors Actuators B 1, 592 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. E. Kunz, Sensors Actuators B 11, 167 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Europlex 99510, Roehm Darmstadt, Germany.
  15. R. E. Kunz, J. Edlinger, P. Sixt, and M. T. Gale, Sensors Actuators A 47, 482 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. BPY 11P, SiemensMunich, Germany.
  17. LIA-BVD-150-H, Femto, Berlin.

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

A. Brandenburg, Sensors Actuators B 38–39, 266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

J. Dübendorfer and R. E. Kunz, Sensors Actuators B 38–39, 116 (1996).

K. Gulden, M. Moser, and S. Lüscher, Proc. SPIE 2682, 125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sensors Actuators B 31, 203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

R. Karlsson and R. Stahlberg, Anal. Biochem. 228, 274 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Kunz, J. Edlinger, P. Sixt, and M. T. Gale, Sensors Actuators A 47, 482 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

R. E. Kunz, Sensors Actuators B 11, 167 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Cush, J. M. Cronin, W. J. Stewart, C. H. Maule, J. Molloy, and N. J. Goddard, Biosensors Bioelectron. 8, 347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sensors Actuators B 10, 209 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Ph. M. Nellen and W. Lukosz, Sensors Actuators B 1, 592 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brandenburg, A.

A. Brandenburg, Sensors Actuators B 38–39, 266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cronin, J. M.

R. Cush, J. M. Cronin, W. J. Stewart, C. H. Maule, J. Molloy, and N. J. Goddard, Biosensors Bioelectron. 8, 347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cush, R.

R. Cush, J. M. Cronin, W. J. Stewart, C. H. Maule, J. Molloy, and N. J. Goddard, Biosensors Bioelectron. 8, 347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dübendorfer, J.

J. Dübendorfer and R. E. Kunz, Appl. Opt. 37, 1890 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Dübendorfer and R. E. Kunz, Sensors Actuators B 38–39, 116 (1996).

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sensors Actuators B 31, 203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Edlinger, J.

R. E. Kunz, J. Edlinger, P. Sixt, and M. T. Gale, Sensors Actuators A 47, 482 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gale, M. T.

R. E. Kunz, J. Edlinger, P. Sixt, and M. T. Gale, Sensors Actuators A 47, 482 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goddard, N. J.

R. Cush, J. M. Cronin, W. J. Stewart, C. H. Maule, J. Molloy, and N. J. Goddard, Biosensors Bioelectron. 8, 347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sensors Actuators B 10, 209 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gulden, K.

K. Gulden, M. Moser, and S. Lüscher, Proc. SPIE 2682, 125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heideman, R. G.

R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sensors Actuators B 10, 209 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, R.

R. Karlsson and R. Stahlberg, Anal. Biochem. 228, 274 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kooyman, R. P. H.

R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sensors Actuators B 10, 209 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, R. E.

J. Dübendorfer and R. E. Kunz, Appl. Opt. 37, 1890 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Dübendorfer and R. E. Kunz, Sensors Actuators B 38–39, 116 (1996).

R. E. Kunz, J. Edlinger, P. Sixt, and M. T. Gale, Sensors Actuators A 47, 482 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Kunz, Sensors Actuators B 11, 167 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lukosz, W.

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sensors Actuators B 31, 203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ph. M. Nellen and W. Lukosz, Sensors Actuators B 1, 592 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lüscher, S.

K. Gulden, M. Moser, and S. Lüscher, Proc. SPIE 2682, 125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maule, C. H.

R. Cush, J. M. Cronin, W. J. Stewart, C. H. Maule, J. Molloy, and N. J. Goddard, Biosensors Bioelectron. 8, 347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Molloy, J.

R. Cush, J. M. Cronin, W. J. Stewart, C. H. Maule, J. Molloy, and N. J. Goddard, Biosensors Bioelectron. 8, 347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Moser, H. R.

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sensors Actuators B 31, 203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moser, M.

K. Gulden, M. Moser, and S. Lüscher, Proc. SPIE 2682, 125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nellen, Ph. M.

Ph. M. Nellen and W. Lukosz, Sensors Actuators B 1, 592 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ryf, R.

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sensors Actuators B 31, 203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sixt, P.

R. E. Kunz, J. Edlinger, P. Sixt, and M. T. Gale, Sensors Actuators A 47, 482 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stahlberg, R.

R. Karlsson and R. Stahlberg, Anal. Biochem. 228, 274 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamm, Ch.

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sensors Actuators B 31, 203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

R. Cush, J. M. Cronin, W. J. Stewart, C. H. Maule, J. Molloy, and N. J. Goddard, Biosensors Bioelectron. 8, 347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

R. Karlsson and R. Stahlberg, Anal. Biochem. 228, 274 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biosensors Bioelectron. (1)

R. Cush, J. M. Cronin, W. J. Stewart, C. H. Maule, J. Molloy, and N. J. Goddard, Biosensors Bioelectron. 8, 347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. Gulden, M. Moser, and S. Lüscher, Proc. SPIE 2682, 125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sensors Actuators A (1)

R. E. Kunz, J. Edlinger, P. Sixt, and M. T. Gale, Sensors Actuators A 47, 482 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sensors Actuators B (6)

Ph. M. Nellen and W. Lukosz, Sensors Actuators B 1, 592 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Kunz, Sensors Actuators B 11, 167 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sensors Actuators B 31, 203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sensors Actuators B 10, 209 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Brandenburg, Sensors Actuators B 38–39, 266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Dübendorfer and R. E. Kunz, Sensors Actuators B 38–39, 116 (1996).

Other (6)

BIOS-1 input grating-coupler instrument, Artificial Sensing Instruments AG, Zurich Switzerland.

BIAcore and BIAlite surface-plasmon resonance biosensors; Biocore, Uppsala, Sweden.

Europlex 99510, Roehm Darmstadt, Germany.

BPY 11P, SiemensMunich, Germany.

LIA-BVD-150-H, Femto, Berlin.

IAsys resonant mirror biosensor sytem, Affinity Sensors, Cambridge, UK.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross section of the grating-coupler sensor in an input grating-coupler sensing scheme.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sawtooth modulation of (a) the laser wavelength and (b) the resulting resonance peak. PD, photodiode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical arrangement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental high-sensitivity sensor module.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sensor responses for channel 1 and channel 2 on switching between a flow of dry and humidified nitrogen gas for (a) one and (b) multiple cycles. Arrows, cycle start.

Equations (1)

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N=na sin θi+mgλtr/Λi

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