Abstract

We report a new approach to obtaining single-transverse-mode operation of a multimode fiber amplifier in which the gain fiber is coiled to induce significant bend loss for all but the lowest-order mode. We demonstrated this method by constructing a coiled amplifier using Yb-doped, double-clad fiber with a core diameter of 25 µm and a numerical aperture of 0.1 V7.4. When the amplifier was operated as an amplified-spontaneous-emission source, the output beam had an M2 value of 1.09±0.09; when seeded at 1064 nm, the slope efficiency was similar to that of an uncoiled amplifier. This technique will permit scaling of pulsed fiber lasers and amplifiers to significantly higher pulse energies and peak powers and cw fiber sources to higher average powers while maintaining excellent beam quality.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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1999

U. Griebner and H. Schönnagel, Opt. Lett. 24, 750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Okhotnikov and J. M. Sousa, Electron. Lett. 35, 1011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 976 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Hofer, M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, D. Harter, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Zawischa, K. Plamann, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, H. Zellmer, and A. Tünnermann, Opt. Lett. 24, 469 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sousa and O. G. Okhotnikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1528 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Galvanauskas, D. Harter, M. A. Arbore, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 23, 1695 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

1996

1993

1991

M. W. Sasnett and T. F. Johnston, Proc. SPIE 1414, 21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1976

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995).

Arbore, M. A.

Bicknese, S.

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, P. S. Yeh, and E. Zucker, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CPD11.

Broderick, N. G.

Caplen, J.

Caplen, J. E.

Chou, M. H.

Davis, C. C.

C. C. Davis, Lasers and Electro-Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1996).

Dohle, R.

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, P. S. Yeh, and E. Zucker, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CPD11.

Dominic, V.

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, P. S. Yeh, and E. Zucker, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CPD11.

Dong, L.

Fallnich, C.

Fejer, M. M.

Fermann, M. E.

M. Hofer, M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, D. Harter, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Fermann, Opt. Lett. 23, 52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Galvanauskas, A.

M. Hofer, M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, D. Harter, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Galvanauskas, D. Harter, M. A. Arbore, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 23, 1695 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, L.

J. P. Koplow, L. Goldberg, and D. A. V. Kliner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

Grudinin, A. B.

C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 976 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grunwald, R.

Hanna, D. C.

Harter, D.

M. Hofer, M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, D. Harter, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Galvanauskas, D. Harter, M. A. Arbore, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 23, 1695 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, M.

M. Hofer, M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, D. Harter, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jaskorzynska, B.

Johnston, T. F.

M. W. Sasnett and T. F. Johnston, Proc. SPIE 1414, 21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kliner, D. A. V.

J. P. Koplow, L. Goldberg, and D. A. V. Kliner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koch, R.

Koplow, J. P.

J. P. Koplow, L. Goldberg, and D. A. V. Kliner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lees, G. P.

G. P. Lees, D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, L. Dong, and T. P. Newson, Electron. Lett. 33, 393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

MacCormack, S.

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, P. S. Yeh, and E. Zucker, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CPD11.

Marcuse, D.

Newson, T. P.

G. P. Lees, D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, L. Dong, and T. P. Newson, Electron. Lett. 33, 393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 976 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsson, R. Paschotta, J. E. Caplen, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Lett. 22, 1092 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nilsson and B. Jaskorzynska, Opt. Lett. 18, 2099 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Offerhaus, H. L.

Okhotnikov, O. G.

J. M. Sousa and O. G. Okhotnikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1528 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Okhotnikov and J. M. Sousa, Electron. Lett. 35, 1011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

Penty, R. V.

Plamann, K.

Renaud, C. C.

C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 976 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Sammut, R.

Sanders, S.

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, P. S. Yeh, and E. Zucker, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CPD11.

Sasnett, M. W.

M. W. Sasnett and T. F. Johnston, Proc. SPIE 1414, 21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schönnagel, H.

Selvas-Aguilar, R. J.

C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 976 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sousa, J. M.

O. G. Okhotnikov and J. M. Sousa, Electron. Lett. 35, 1011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sousa and O. G. Okhotnikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1528 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taverner, D.

G. P. Lees, D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, L. Dong, and T. P. Newson, Electron. Lett. 33, 393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, L. Dong, J. E. Caplen, K. Williams, and R. V. Penty, Opt. Lett. 22, 378 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tünnermann, A.

Turner, P. W.

C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 976 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Waarts, R.

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, P. S. Yeh, and E. Zucker, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CPD11.

Welling, H.

Williams, K.

Windeler, R. S.

M. Hofer, M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, D. Harter, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolak, E.

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, P. S. Yeh, and E. Zucker, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CPD11.

Yeh, P. S.

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, P. S. Yeh, and E. Zucker, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CPD11.

Zawischa, I.

Zellmer, H.

Zucker, E.

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, P. S. Yeh, and E. Zucker, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CPD11.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. M. Sousa and O. G. Okhotnikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1528 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

G. P. Lees, D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, L. Dong, and T. P. Newson, Electron. Lett. 33, 393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Okhotnikov and J. M. Sousa, Electron. Lett. 35, 1011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 976 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Hofer, M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, D. Harter, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Koplow, L. Goldberg, and D. A. V. Kliner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

M. W. Sasnett and T. F. Johnston, Proc. SPIE 1414, 21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. C. Davis, Lasers and Electro-Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1996).

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, P. S. Yeh, and E. Zucker, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CPD11.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated values of the LP11 suppression relative to LP01 versus core diameter at the indicated values of γ01. The choice of L=10 m is representative; for other fiber lengths, similar levels of LP11 suppression are calculated for a given γ01 at slightly different values of D.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

ASE power as a function of spool diameter. The ASE power for a loosely coiled amplifier D>20 cm was 140 mW. Inset, near-field intensity distribution of ASE from the MM amplifier for various spool diameters. The curves have been offset for clarity, and the integrated areas correspond to the ASE powers. FWHM, the full width at half-maximum of the best-fit Gaussian curve for each profile; the fit is shown for D=1.58 cm. Much of the scatter in the data arises from pixel-to-pixel variations in the sensitivity of the diode array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measurement of M2 for copropagating ASE from the coiled MM amplifier with Ppump=3.9 W. The ASE was focused with a microscope objective f=16 mm, and the 1/e2 beam radius ω was measured at various positions z near the beam waist z=0. Solid curve, best fit assuming a Gaussian beam. Dashed curve (nearly indistinguishable from the solid curve), best fit to the equation20 used to determine M2 (shown in the figure). (b) Saturated output power as a function of Ppump for the uncoiled and coiled MM amplifiers seeded at 1064 nm (copropagating). The curvature at low pump powers resulted from shifting of the pump-laser wavelength as the current was varied. The slope efficiency and threshold were determined from linear fits to the data with Ppump>5 W.

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