Abstract

We report a new approach to obtaining linear-polarization operation of a rare-earth-doped fiber amplifier in which the gain fiber is coiled under tension to induce birefringence. We demonstrated this method by constructing an Er/Yb-doped, double-clad, single-mode fiber amplifier with an output power of 530 mW and a polarization extinction ratio of >17 dB (when seeded with linearly polarized light) at a wavelength of 1.5 µm. The technique is achromatic, permits single- or multiple-pass operation of the amplifier, requires no additional components in the optical path, leaves the fiber ends unobstructed, and is inexpensive to implement.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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J. P. Koplow, D. A. V. Kliner, and L. Goldberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 75 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Goldberg and J. P. Koplow, Electron. Lett. 34, 2027 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Offerhaus, N. G. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, R. Sammut, J. Caplen, and L. Dong, Opt. Lett. 23, 1683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, S. Merlo, and G. Zapelloni, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Goldberg, B. Cole, and E. Snitzer, Electron. Lett. 33, 2127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

D. G. Cooper, J. L. Dexter, and R. D. Esman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

L. Zenteno, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1435 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

I. N. Duling and R. D. Esman, Electron. Lett. 28, 1126 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, Y. Sun, J. Stone, L. W. Stulz, G. T. Harvey, D. J. DiGiovanni, H. M. Presby, A. Piccirilli, U. Koren, and R. M. Jopson, Electron. Lett. 27, 2148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

K. Tajima, Electron. Lett. 26, 1498 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983

S. C. Rashleigh, J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 312 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

1980

1979

1976

Annovazzi-Lodi, V.

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, S. Merlo, and G. Zapelloni, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Britton, P. E.

Broderick, N. G.

Burns, W. K.

Caplen, J.

Cole, B.

L. Goldberg, B. Cole, and E. Snitzer, Electron. Lett. 33, 2127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, D. G.

D. G. Cooper, J. L. Dexter, and R. D. Esman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dexter, J. L.

D. G. Cooper, J. L. Dexter, and R. D. Esman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, Y. Sun, J. Stone, L. W. Stulz, G. T. Harvey, D. J. DiGiovanni, H. M. Presby, A. Piccirilli, U. Koren, and R. M. Jopson, Electron. Lett. 27, 2148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Donati, S.

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, S. Merlo, and G. Zapelloni, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

Duling, I. N.

I. N. Duling and R. D. Esman, Electron. Lett. 28, 1126 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Eickhoff, W.

Esman, R. D.

D. G. Cooper, J. L. Dexter, and R. D. Esman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Duling and R. D. Esman, Electron. Lett. 28, 1126 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, L.

L. Goldberg and J. P. Koplow, Electron. Lett. 34, 2027 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Koplow, D. A. V. Kliner, and L. Goldberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 75 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Goldberg, B. Cole, and E. Snitzer, Electron. Lett. 33, 2127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Goldberg and J. P. Koplow, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper WA7.

Griebner, U.

Grunwald, R.

Hakimi, F.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, and B. C. McCollum, in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 2 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), paper PD5.

Hanna, D. C.

Harvey, G. T.

J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, Y. Sun, J. Stone, L. W. Stulz, G. T. Harvey, D. J. DiGiovanni, H. M. Presby, A. Piccirilli, U. Koren, and R. M. Jopson, Electron. Lett. 27, 2148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M.

Jopson, R. M.

J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, Y. Sun, J. Stone, L. W. Stulz, G. T. Harvey, D. J. DiGiovanni, H. M. Presby, A. Piccirilli, U. Koren, and R. M. Jopson, Electron. Lett. 27, 2148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kalish, D.

D. Kalish, P. L. Key, C. R. Kurkjian, B. K. Tariyal, and T. T. Wang, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, S. E. Miller and A. G. Chynoweth, eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 401.
[CrossRef]

Key, P. L.

D. Kalish, P. L. Key, C. R. Kurkjian, B. K. Tariyal, and T. T. Wang, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, S. E. Miller and A. G. Chynoweth, eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 401.
[CrossRef]

Kliner, D. A. V.

J. P. Koplow, D. A. V. Kliner, and L. Goldberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 75 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koch, R.

Koplow, J. P.

L. Goldberg and J. P. Koplow, Electron. Lett. 34, 2027 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Koplow, D. A. V. Kliner, and L. Goldberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 75 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Goldberg and J. P. Koplow, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper WA7.

Koren, U.

J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, Y. Sun, J. Stone, L. W. Stulz, G. T. Harvey, D. J. DiGiovanni, H. M. Presby, A. Piccirilli, U. Koren, and R. M. Jopson, Electron. Lett. 27, 2148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kurkjian, C. R.

D. Kalish, P. L. Key, C. R. Kurkjian, B. K. Tariyal, and T. T. Wang, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, S. E. Miller and A. G. Chynoweth, eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 401.
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

McCollum, B. C.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, and B. C. McCollum, in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 2 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), paper PD5.

Merlo, S.

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, S. Merlo, and G. Zapelloni, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moeller, R. P.

Offerhaus, H. L.

Phillips, M. W.

M. W. Phillips, in Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, M. J. F. Digonnet, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993), p. 393.

Piccirilli, A.

J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, Y. Sun, J. Stone, L. W. Stulz, G. T. Harvey, D. J. DiGiovanni, H. M. Presby, A. Piccirilli, U. Koren, and R. M. Jopson, Electron. Lett. 27, 2148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Po, H.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, and B. C. McCollum, in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 2 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), paper PD5.

Presby, H. M.

J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, Y. Sun, J. Stone, L. W. Stulz, G. T. Harvey, D. J. DiGiovanni, H. M. Presby, A. Piccirilli, U. Koren, and R. M. Jopson, Electron. Lett. 27, 2148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rashleigh, S. C.

Richardson, D. J.

Ross, G. W.

Sammut, R.

Schönnagel, H.

Smith, P. G. R.

Snitzer, E.

L. Goldberg, B. Cole, and E. Snitzer, Electron. Lett. 33, 2127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, and B. C. McCollum, in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 2 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), paper PD5.

Stone, J.

J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, Y. Sun, J. Stone, L. W. Stulz, G. T. Harvey, D. J. DiGiovanni, H. M. Presby, A. Piccirilli, U. Koren, and R. M. Jopson, Electron. Lett. 27, 2148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stulz, L. W.

J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, Y. Sun, J. Stone, L. W. Stulz, G. T. Harvey, D. J. DiGiovanni, H. M. Presby, A. Piccirilli, U. Koren, and R. M. Jopson, Electron. Lett. 27, 2148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sulhoff, J. W.

J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, Y. Sun, J. Stone, L. W. Stulz, G. T. Harvey, D. J. DiGiovanni, H. M. Presby, A. Piccirilli, U. Koren, and R. M. Jopson, Electron. Lett. 27, 2148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, Y. Sun, J. Stone, L. W. Stulz, G. T. Harvey, D. J. DiGiovanni, H. M. Presby, A. Piccirilli, U. Koren, and R. M. Jopson, Electron. Lett. 27, 2148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, K.

K. Tajima, Electron. Lett. 26, 1498 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tariyal, B. K.

D. Kalish, P. L. Key, C. R. Kurkjian, B. K. Tariyal, and T. T. Wang, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, S. E. Miller and A. G. Chynoweth, eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 401.
[CrossRef]

Tumminelli, R.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, and B. C. McCollum, in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 2 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), paper PD5.

Ulrich, R.

Wang, T. T.

D. Kalish, P. L. Key, C. R. Kurkjian, B. K. Tariyal, and T. T. Wang, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, S. E. Miller and A. G. Chynoweth, eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 401.
[CrossRef]

Zapelloni, G.

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, S. Merlo, and G. Zapelloni, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zenteno, L.

L. Zenteno, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1435 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zyskind, J. L.

J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, Y. Sun, J. Stone, L. W. Stulz, G. T. Harvey, D. J. DiGiovanni, H. M. Presby, A. Piccirilli, U. Koren, and R. M. Jopson, Electron. Lett. 27, 2148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, Y. Sun, J. Stone, L. W. Stulz, G. T. Harvey, D. J. DiGiovanni, H. M. Presby, A. Piccirilli, U. Koren, and R. M. Jopson, Electron. Lett. 27, 2148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, Electron. Lett. 26, 1498 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Duling and R. D. Esman, Electron. Lett. 28, 1126 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Goldberg, B. Cole, and E. Snitzer, Electron. Lett. 33, 2127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Goldberg and J. P. Koplow, Electron. Lett. 34, 2027 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

D. G. Cooper, J. L. Dexter, and R. D. Esman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. P. Koplow, D. A. V. Kliner, and L. Goldberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 75 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

S. C. Rashleigh, J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 312 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. Zenteno, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1435 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, S. Merlo, and G. Zapelloni, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Lett.

Other

L. Goldberg and J. P. Koplow, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper WA7.

M. W. Phillips, in Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, M. J. F. Digonnet, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993), p. 393.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, and B. C. McCollum, in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 2 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), paper PD5.

D. Kalish, P. L. Key, C. R. Kurkjian, B. K. Tariyal, and T. T. Wang, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, S. E. Miller and A. G. Chynoweth, eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 401.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Saturated output power (bottom) and polarization extinction ratio (top) of the tension-coiled amplifier as a function of diode pump power. The amplifier was seeded with 10 mW of linearly polarized light from an ASE source operating at λ1.55 µm (see Fig. 3 for the spectrum of the ASE source). The least-squares-fit line corresponds to a slope efficiency and a threshold of 37% and 0.23 W, respectively (see text).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Power transmitted through the output polarizer as a function of polarizer angle at Ipump=2.5 A (1.3 W absorbed pump power and 410 mW of saturated output power). The curve is a least-squares fit of the data to the equation Pθ=sin2θ+C, where Pθ is the transmitted power, θ is the polarizer angle, and C is a constant. The polarization extinction ratio is 17.2 dB.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

ASE spectra of the seed source, the unseeded amplifier, and the seeded amplifier at the indicated values of Ipump.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

βtc=πn3rλRp11-p121+ν,
βtc=-1.7rλR.
βb=πn3r22λR2p11-p121+ν=-0.86r2λR2.

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