Abstract

Convex microlenses of As2S3 glass have been fabricated on oxide-glass fiber ends by use of a photolithographic technique. As2S3 film evaporated on the end surface of an optical fiber is exposed to light through the opposite end surface, and the film etching is observed under a microscope. This process produces a lens that is automatically positioned on the fiber core. The As2S3 film possesses a high refractive index, which is favorable for production of microlenses with short focal lengths of 10 µm.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H.-P. Herzig, ed., Micro-Optics: Elements, Systems and Applications (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997).
  2. J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191 (1973/74).
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  3. S. R. Elliott, in Materials Science and Technology, J. Zarzycki, ed. (VCH, Deerfield Beach, Fla., 1990), Vol. 9, p. 375.
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    [CrossRef]
  6. S. A. Keneman, Thin Solid Films 21, 281 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. S. Chang and J. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 892 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. A. Doane and A. Heller, Inorganic Resist Systems (Electrochemical Society, Pennington, N.J., 1982).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Petkov, M. Sachatchieva, and J. Dikova, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 101, 37 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Mamedov, Thin Solid Films 226, 215 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), p. 133.
  14. L. G. Cohen and M. V. Schneider, Appl. Opt. 13, 89 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Noach, M. Manevich, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, and N. P. Eisenberg, Proc. SPIE 3778, 158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H.-Y. Lee, S.-W. Paek, and H.-B. Chung, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 6792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, and H. Itoh, J. Appl. Phys. 13, 5518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, Adv. Phys. 44, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. Mamedov, Thin Solid Films 226, 215 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. Tanaka, Rev. Solid State Phys. 4, 641 (1990).

1988 (1)

K. Petkov, M. Sachatchieva, and J. Dikova, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 101, 37 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

M. S. Chang and J. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 892 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, and H. Itoh, J. Appl. Phys. 13, 5518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), p. 133.

Chang, M. S.

M. S. Chang and J. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 892 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. T.

M. S. Chang and J. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 892 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Chung, H.-B.

H.-Y. Lee, S.-W. Paek, and H.-B. Chung, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 6792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, L. G.

De Neufville, J. P.

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191 (1973/74).
[CrossRef]

Dikova, J.

K. Petkov, M. Sachatchieva, and J. Dikova, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 101, 37 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Doane, D. A.

D. A. Doane and A. Heller, Inorganic Resist Systems (Electrochemical Society, Pennington, N.J., 1982).

Eisenberg, N. P.

S. Noach, M. Manevich, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, and N. P. Eisenberg, Proc. SPIE 3778, 158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, S. R.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, Adv. Phys. 44, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Elliott, in Materials Science and Technology, J. Zarzycki, ed. (VCH, Deerfield Beach, Fla., 1990), Vol. 9, p. 375.

Heller, A.

D. A. Doane and A. Heller, Inorganic Resist Systems (Electrochemical Society, Pennington, N.J., 1982).

Itoh, H.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, and H. Itoh, J. Appl. Phys. 13, 5518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, T.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, and H. Itoh, J. Appl. Phys. 13, 5518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Keneman, S. A.

S. A. Keneman, Thin Solid Films 21, 281 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Klebanov, M.

S. Noach, M. Manevich, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, and N. P. Eisenberg, Proc. SPIE 3778, 158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kolobov, A.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, Adv. Phys. 44, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Lee, S.-W. Paek, and H.-B. Chung, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 6792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lyubin, V.

S. Noach, M. Manevich, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, and N. P. Eisenberg, Proc. SPIE 3778, 158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mamedov, S.

S. Mamedov, Thin Solid Films 226, 215 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Manevich, M.

S. Noach, M. Manevich, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, and N. P. Eisenberg, Proc. SPIE 3778, 158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moss, S. C.

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191 (1973/74).
[CrossRef]

Naganuma, K.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, and H. Itoh, J. Appl. Phys. 13, 5518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Noach, S.

S. Noach, M. Manevich, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, and N. P. Eisenberg, Proc. SPIE 3778, 158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ovshinsky, S. R.

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191 (1973/74).
[CrossRef]

Paek, S.-W.

H.-Y. Lee, S.-W. Paek, and H.-B. Chung, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 6792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petkov, K.

K. Petkov, M. Sachatchieva, and J. Dikova, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 101, 37 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sachatchieva, M.

K. Petkov, M. Sachatchieva, and J. Dikova, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 101, 37 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, M. V.

Shimakawa, K.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, Adv. Phys. 44, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, Rev. Solid State Phys. 4, 641 (1990).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), p. 133.

Adv. Phys. (1)

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, Adv. Phys. 44, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. S. Chang and J. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 892 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, and H. Itoh, J. Appl. Phys. 13, 5518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

K. Petkov, M. Sachatchieva, and J. Dikova, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 101, 37 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191 (1973/74).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H.-Y. Lee, S.-W. Paek, and H.-B. Chung, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 6792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Noach, M. Manevich, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, and N. P. Eisenberg, Proc. SPIE 3778, 158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Solid State Phys. (1)

K. Tanaka, Rev. Solid State Phys. 4, 641 (1990).

Thin Solid Films (2)

S. A. Keneman, Thin Solid Films 21, 281 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. Mamedov, Thin Solid Films 226, 215 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), p. 133.

D. A. Doane and A. Heller, Inorganic Resist Systems (Electrochemical Society, Pennington, N.J., 1982).

H.-P. Herzig, ed., Micro-Optics: Elements, Systems and Applications (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997).

S. R. Elliott, in Materials Science and Technology, J. Zarzycki, ed. (VCH, Deerfield Beach, Fla., 1990), Vol. 9, p. 375.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Surface profiles (three-dimensional views) of As2S3 microlenses fabricated on optical fiber ends. The profile in (a) is produced by exposure of the film to 633-nm light of 0.1-mW power for 3  min and etching in 0.02-N NaOH for 2.5  min. For (b), the exposure is provided by 532-nm light of 0.01-mW power for 1  min, and the film is etched in 0.03-N NaOH for 2  min. For the vertical axes, the zero points are taken arbitrarily, and only the etched height is relevant.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Light-intensity distributions of a microlens-attached fiber at the end surface (triangles with a dashed curve) and at a distance of 10 µm from the surface (circles with solid curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spot-size diameter as a function of the distance from the fiber end for a plane fiber (filled circles with dashed curve) and a microlens-attached fiber (open circles with solid curve). The diameter is evaluated as the distance between the points with the 1/e2 light intensity of the center intensity.

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