Abstract

We have developed a novel phase-resolved optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical Doppler tomography (ODT) system that uses phase information derived from a Hilbert transformation to image blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity. Using the phase change between sequential scans to construct flow-velocity imaging, this technique decouples spatial resolution and velocity sensitivity in flow images and increases imaging speed by more than 2 orders of magnitude without compromising spatial resolution or velocity sensitivity. The minimum flow velocity that can be detected with an axial-line scanning speed of 400 Hz and an average phase change over eight sequential scans is as low as 10 µm/s, while a spatial resolution of 10 µm is maintained. Using this technique, we present what are to our knowledge the first phase-resolved OCT/ODT images of blood flow in human skin.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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1998 (1)

1997 (4)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Burton, A. C.

A. C. Burton, Physiology and Biophysics of the Circulation (Year, Chicago, Ill., 1972).

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Dave, D.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 22, 1811 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

M. D. Kulkarni, T. G. Van Leeuwen, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 23, 1057 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar, M. D. Kulkarni, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Exp. 1, 424 (1997); http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, M. D.

M. D. Kulkarni, T. G. Van Leeuwen, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 23, 1057 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar, M. D. Kulkarni, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Exp. 1, 424 (1997); http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malekafzali, A.

Mandel, L.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1995).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

Nelson, J. S.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Van Leeuwen, T. G.

Wang, X.

Wolf, E.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1995).
[CrossRef]

Yazdanfar, S.

M. D. Kulkarni, T. G. Van Leeuwen, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 23, 1057 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar, M. D. Kulkarni, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Exp. 1, 424 (1997); http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

Opt. Exp. (1)

S. Yazdanfar, M. D. Kulkarni, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Exp. 1, 424 (1997); http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1995).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Burton, Physiology and Biophysics of the Circulation (Year, Chicago, Ill., 1972).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the optical device and signal-processing algorithm for ODT imaging. RSOD, rapid-scanning optical delay line; EOM, fiber-pigtailed electro-optic modulator; SLD, superluminescent diode; A/D, analog–digital. The probe is mounted upon a stage for lateral scanning.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

ODT blood-flow images and velocity profile from human skin (finger). A, gray-scale structural image; B, color-coded velocity image of blood flow; C, Doppler frequency shifts (velocity profile) along a vertical cross section passing through the largest vein in the velocity image (indicated by arrow 1 in B); D, Doppler frequency shifts of a 20µm capillary (indicated by arrow 2 in B).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

OCT/ODT images of blood flow in human skin (hand palm). A, gray-scale structural image; B, color-coded velocity image of blood flow.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

νmin=λ02n cosθΔtp,
Δxp=VΔtp,
Γ˜ODTt=ΓODTt+iπP-ΓODTττ-tdτ=Atexpiϕt,
ω=Δϕ/T,

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