Abstract

A compact integration-compatible semiconductor laser supporting a planar Gaussian mode is demonstrated. Curved deep-etched distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR’s), contouring the phase front of the Gaussian wave, act as feedback elements. The DBR’s are 0.5 µm deep and have two first-order air gaps separated by a third-order semiconductor spacer. Low-threshold current (10 mA) is achieved for a 90µm-long laser with a waist of 2 µm. Lasing in a planar Gaussian mode is observed up to 1.7 times the threshold current, whereas at higher currents the mode behavior degrades because of spatial hole burning.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, Proc. SPIE 3626, 190 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Baba, M. Hamasaki, N. Watanabe, P. Kaewplung, A. Matsutani, T. Mukaihara, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1390 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Yuan, T. Brock, P. Bhattacharya, C. Caneau, and R. Bhat, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 881 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Jambunathan and J. Singh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1180 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Höfling, R. Werner, J. P. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, Electron. Lett. 35, 154 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Höfling, F. Schafer, J. P. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 943 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. M. Raj, J. Wiedmann, Y. Saka, H. Yasumoto, and S. Arai, Electron. Lett. 35, 1335 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Uemukai, A. Yoshimoto, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, Electron. Lett. 33, 1464 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Uemukai, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1097 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Mukaihara, N. Yamanaka, N. Iwai, M. Funabashi, T. Ishikawa, and A. Kasukawa, in 16th International Semiconductor Laser Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), pp. 151–152.

1999 (4)

A. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, Proc. SPIE 3626, 190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Höfling, R. Werner, J. P. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, Electron. Lett. 35, 154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Höfling, F. Schafer, J. P. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 943 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Raj, J. Wiedmann, Y. Saka, H. Yasumoto, and S. Arai, Electron. Lett. 35, 1335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Uemukai, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1097 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

M. Uemukai, A. Yoshimoto, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, Electron. Lett. 33, 1464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yuan, T. Brock, P. Bhattacharya, C. Caneau, and R. Bhat, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Jambunathan and J. Singh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. Baba, M. Hamasaki, N. Watanabe, P. Kaewplung, A. Matsutani, T. Mukaihara, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arai, S.

M. M. Raj, J. Wiedmann, Y. Saka, H. Yasumoto, and S. Arai, Electron. Lett. 35, 1335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

T. Baba, M. Hamasaki, N. Watanabe, P. Kaewplung, A. Matsutani, T. Mukaihara, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bengtsson, J.

N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, R.

Y. Yuan, T. Brock, P. Bhattacharya, C. Caneau, and R. Bhat, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

Y. Yuan, T. Brock, P. Bhattacharya, C. Caneau, and R. Bhat, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brock, T.

Y. Yuan, T. Brock, P. Bhattacharya, C. Caneau, and R. Bhat, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Caneau, C.

Y. Yuan, T. Brock, P. Bhattacharya, C. Caneau, and R. Bhat, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, N.

A. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, Proc. SPIE 3626, 190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Uemukai, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1097 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Uemukai, A. Yoshimoto, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, Electron. Lett. 33, 1464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

E. Höfling, R. Werner, J. P. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, Electron. Lett. 35, 154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Höfling, F. Schafer, J. P. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 943 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Funabashi, M.

T. Mukaihara, N. Yamanaka, N. Iwai, M. Funabashi, T. Ishikawa, and A. Kasukawa, in 16th International Semiconductor Laser Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), pp. 151–152.

Hamasaki, M.

T. Baba, M. Hamasaki, N. Watanabe, P. Kaewplung, A. Matsutani, T. Mukaihara, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Höfling, E.

E. Höfling, F. Schafer, J. P. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 943 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Höfling, R. Werner, J. P. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, Electron. Lett. 35, 154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.

T. Baba, M. Hamasaki, N. Watanabe, P. Kaewplung, A. Matsutani, T. Mukaihara, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, T.

T. Mukaihara, N. Yamanaka, N. Iwai, M. Funabashi, T. Ishikawa, and A. Kasukawa, in 16th International Semiconductor Laser Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), pp. 151–152.

Iwai, N.

T. Mukaihara, N. Yamanaka, N. Iwai, M. Funabashi, T. Ishikawa, and A. Kasukawa, in 16th International Semiconductor Laser Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), pp. 151–152.

Jambunathan, R.

R. Jambunathan and J. Singh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaewplung, P.

T. Baba, M. Hamasaki, N. Watanabe, P. Kaewplung, A. Matsutani, T. Mukaihara, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kasukawa, A.

T. Mukaihara, N. Yamanaka, N. Iwai, M. Funabashi, T. Ishikawa, and A. Kasukawa, in 16th International Semiconductor Laser Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), pp. 151–152.

Koyama, F.

T. Baba, M. Hamasaki, N. Watanabe, P. Kaewplung, A. Matsutani, T. Mukaihara, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kristjánsson, S.

A. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, Proc. SPIE 3626, 190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, A.

A. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, Proc. SPIE 3626, 190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Uemukai, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1097 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Uemukai, A. Yoshimoto, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, Electron. Lett. 33, 1464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, N.

M. Uemukai, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1097 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Uemukai, A. Yoshimoto, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, Electron. Lett. 33, 1464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsutani, A.

T. Baba, M. Hamasaki, N. Watanabe, P. Kaewplung, A. Matsutani, T. Mukaihara, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Modh, P.

A. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, Proc. SPIE 3626, 190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mukaihara, T.

T. Baba, M. Hamasaki, N. Watanabe, P. Kaewplung, A. Matsutani, T. Mukaihara, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukaihara, N. Yamanaka, N. Iwai, M. Funabashi, T. Ishikawa, and A. Kasukawa, in 16th International Semiconductor Laser Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), pp. 151–152.

Nishihara, H.

A. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, Proc. SPIE 3626, 190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Uemukai, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1097 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Uemukai, A. Yoshimoto, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, Electron. Lett. 33, 1464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Raj, M. M.

M. M. Raj, J. Wiedmann, Y. Saka, H. Yasumoto, and S. Arai, Electron. Lett. 35, 1335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reithmaier, J. P.

E. Höfling, R. Werner, J. P. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, Electron. Lett. 35, 154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Höfling, F. Schafer, J. P. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 943 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saka, Y.

M. M. Raj, J. Wiedmann, Y. Saka, H. Yasumoto, and S. Arai, Electron. Lett. 35, 1335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, F.

E. Höfling, F. Schafer, J. P. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 943 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Singh, J.

R. Jambunathan and J. Singh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suhara, T.

A. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, Proc. SPIE 3626, 190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Uemukai, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1097 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Uemukai, A. Yoshimoto, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, Electron. Lett. 33, 1464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Uemukai, M.

A. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, Proc. SPIE 3626, 190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Uemukai, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1097 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Uemukai, A. Yoshimoto, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, Electron. Lett. 33, 1464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, N.

T. Baba, M. Hamasaki, N. Watanabe, P. Kaewplung, A. Matsutani, T. Mukaihara, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Werner, R.

E. Höfling, R. Werner, J. P. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, Electron. Lett. 35, 154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wiedmann, J.

M. M. Raj, J. Wiedmann, Y. Saka, H. Yasumoto, and S. Arai, Electron. Lett. 35, 1335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, N.

T. Mukaihara, N. Yamanaka, N. Iwai, M. Funabashi, T. Ishikawa, and A. Kasukawa, in 16th International Semiconductor Laser Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), pp. 151–152.

Yasumoto, H.

M. M. Raj, J. Wiedmann, Y. Saka, H. Yasumoto, and S. Arai, Electron. Lett. 35, 1335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimoto, A.

M. Uemukai, A. Yoshimoto, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, Electron. Lett. 33, 1464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y.

Y. Yuan, T. Brock, P. Bhattacharya, C. Caneau, and R. Bhat, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

M. M. Raj, J. Wiedmann, Y. Saka, H. Yasumoto, and S. Arai, Electron. Lett. 35, 1335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Uemukai, A. Yoshimoto, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, Electron. Lett. 33, 1464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Höfling, R. Werner, J. P. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, Electron. Lett. 35, 154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Jambunathan and J. Singh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

E. Höfling, F. Schafer, J. P. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 943 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Uemukai, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1097 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yuan, T. Brock, P. Bhattacharya, C. Caneau, and R. Bhat, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Baba, M. Hamasaki, N. Watanabe, P. Kaewplung, A. Matsutani, T. Mukaihara, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, Proc. SPIE 3626, 190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

T. Mukaihara, N. Yamanaka, N. Iwai, M. Funabashi, T. Ishikawa, and A. Kasukawa, in 16th International Semiconductor Laser Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), pp. 151–152.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the laser resonator with curved deep-etched DBR’s supporting a planar Gaussian mode. (b) Scanning-electron micrograph of a curved deep-etched DBR.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Line scans through near-field images of the DBR at four current injections. Dashed curves, pulsed-current injection; solid curves, continuous-current injection; dotted curves, calculated profiles of the Gaussian mode in a passive waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavelength spectra recorded at four continuous-current injections.

Equations (1)

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2kz+kzy2z2+kω02/22-arctan2zkω02=m2π,

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