Abstract

We observed photon antibunching in the fluorescent light emitted from a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond at room temperature. The possibility of generating triggerable single photons with such a solid-state system is discussed.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. For a review see W. Tittel, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, Phys. World 11(3), 41 (1998).
  2. N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 59, 3301 (1999); G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, Quantum Phys., abstr., in arXiv.org e-Print archive, http://arXiv.org/abs/quant-ph/?9911054.
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. K. Hong and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 58 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Grangier, G. Roger, and A. Aspect, Europhys. Lett. 1, 173 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. de Martini, G. Di Giuseppe, and M. Marrocco, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 900 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Kim, O. Benson, H. Kan, and Y. Yamamoto, Nature 397, 500 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Brunel, B. Lounis, P. Tamarat, and M. Orrit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2722 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. C. Kitson, P. Jonsson, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, Phys. Rev. A 58, 620 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. K. Law and H. J. Kimble, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 2067 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowki, Science 276, 2012 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 691 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Diedrich and H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 203 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Th. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. T. Collins, M. F. Thomaz, and M. I. B. Jorge, J. Phys. C 16, 2177 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Bernard, L. Fleury, H. Talon, and M. Orrit, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 850 (1993).
  16. A. Dräbenstedt, L. Fleury, C. Tietz, F. Jelezko, S. Kilin, A. Nizovtev, and J. Wrachtrup, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11503 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. The avalanche triggered by the detection of a photon produces a backward flash of IR light, which has to be suppressed by appropriate filtering M. Orrit and C. Brunel, Centre de Physique Moléculaire Optique et Hertzienne, Université de Bordeaux, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence, France (personal communication, 1999).

1999

N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 59, 3301 (1999); G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, Quantum Phys., abstr., in arXiv.org e-Print archive, http://arXiv.org/abs/quant-ph/?9911054.
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, O. Benson, H. Kan, and Y. Yamamoto, Nature 397, 500 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Brunel, B. Lounis, P. Tamarat, and M. Orrit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2722 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Dräbenstedt, L. Fleury, C. Tietz, F. Jelezko, S. Kilin, A. Nizovtev, and J. Wrachtrup, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. C. Kitson, P. Jonsson, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, Phys. Rev. A 58, 620 (1998).
[CrossRef]

For a review see W. Tittel, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, Phys. World 11(3), 41 (1998).

1997

C. K. Law and H. J. Kimble, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 2067 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowki, Science 276, 2012 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

F. de Martini, G. Di Giuseppe, and M. Marrocco, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 900 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

J. Bernard, L. Fleury, H. Talon, and M. Orrit, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 850 (1993).

1992

Th. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987

F. Diedrich and H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 203 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

C. K. Hong and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 58 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Grangier, G. Roger, and A. Aspect, Europhys. Lett. 1, 173 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983

A. T. Collins, M. F. Thomaz, and M. I. B. Jorge, J. Phys. C 16, 2177 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1977

H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 691 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aspect, A.

P. Grangier, G. Roger, and A. Aspect, Europhys. Lett. 1, 173 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Basché, Th.

Th. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Benson, O.

J. Kim, O. Benson, H. Kan, and Y. Yamamoto, Nature 397, 500 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, J.

J. Bernard, L. Fleury, H. Talon, and M. Orrit, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 850 (1993).

Brassard, G.

N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 59, 3301 (1999); G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, Quantum Phys., abstr., in arXiv.org e-Print archive, http://arXiv.org/abs/quant-ph/?9911054.
[CrossRef]

Brunel, C.

C. Brunel, B. Lounis, P. Tamarat, and M. Orrit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2722 (1999).
[CrossRef]

The avalanche triggered by the detection of a photon produces a backward flash of IR light, which has to be suppressed by appropriate filtering M. Orrit and C. Brunel, Centre de Physique Moléculaire Optique et Hertzienne, Université de Bordeaux, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence, France (personal communication, 1999).

Collins, A. T.

A. T. Collins, M. F. Thomaz, and M. I. B. Jorge, J. Phys. C 16, 2177 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dagenais, M.

H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 691 (1977).
[CrossRef]

de Martini, F.

F. de Martini, G. Di Giuseppe, and M. Marrocco, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 900 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Giuseppe, G.

F. de Martini, G. Di Giuseppe, and M. Marrocco, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 900 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diedrich, F.

F. Diedrich and H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 203 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dräbenstedt, A.

A. Dräbenstedt, L. Fleury, C. Tietz, F. Jelezko, S. Kilin, A. Nizovtev, and J. Wrachtrup, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowki, Science 276, 2012 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fleury, L.

A. Dräbenstedt, L. Fleury, C. Tietz, F. Jelezko, S. Kilin, A. Nizovtev, and J. Wrachtrup, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowki, Science 276, 2012 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Bernard, L. Fleury, H. Talon, and M. Orrit, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 850 (1993).

Gisin, N.

For a review see W. Tittel, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, Phys. World 11(3), 41 (1998).

Grangier, P.

P. Grangier, G. Roger, and A. Aspect, Europhys. Lett. 1, 173 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, A.

A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowki, Science 276, 2012 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. K.

C. K. Hong and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 58 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jelezko, F.

A. Dräbenstedt, L. Fleury, C. Tietz, F. Jelezko, S. Kilin, A. Nizovtev, and J. Wrachtrup, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jonsson, P.

S. C. Kitson, P. Jonsson, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, Phys. Rev. A 58, 620 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jorge, M. I. B.

A. T. Collins, M. F. Thomaz, and M. I. B. Jorge, J. Phys. C 16, 2177 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kan, H.

J. Kim, O. Benson, H. Kan, and Y. Yamamoto, Nature 397, 500 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kilin, S.

A. Dräbenstedt, L. Fleury, C. Tietz, F. Jelezko, S. Kilin, A. Nizovtev, and J. Wrachtrup, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, O. Benson, H. Kan, and Y. Yamamoto, Nature 397, 500 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

C. K. Law and H. J. Kimble, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 2067 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 691 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kitson, S. C.

S. C. Kitson, P. Jonsson, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, Phys. Rev. A 58, 620 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Law, C. K.

C. K. Law and H. J. Kimble, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 2067 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lounis, B.

C. Brunel, B. Lounis, P. Tamarat, and M. Orrit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2722 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lütkenhaus, N.

N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 59, 3301 (1999); G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, Quantum Phys., abstr., in arXiv.org e-Print archive, http://arXiv.org/abs/quant-ph/?9911054.
[CrossRef]

N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 59, 3301 (1999); G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, Quantum Phys., abstr., in arXiv.org e-Print archive, http://arXiv.org/abs/quant-ph/?9911054.
[CrossRef]

Mandel, L.

C. K. Hong and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 58 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 691 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Marrocco, M.

F. de Martini, G. Di Giuseppe, and M. Marrocco, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 900 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moerner, W. E.

Th. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mor, T.

N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 59, 3301 (1999); G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, Quantum Phys., abstr., in arXiv.org e-Print archive, http://arXiv.org/abs/quant-ph/?9911054.
[CrossRef]

Nizovtev, A.

A. Dräbenstedt, L. Fleury, C. Tietz, F. Jelezko, S. Kilin, A. Nizovtev, and J. Wrachtrup, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Orrit, M.

C. Brunel, B. Lounis, P. Tamarat, and M. Orrit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2722 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Bernard, L. Fleury, H. Talon, and M. Orrit, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 850 (1993).

Th. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

The avalanche triggered by the detection of a photon produces a backward flash of IR light, which has to be suppressed by appropriate filtering M. Orrit and C. Brunel, Centre de Physique Moléculaire Optique et Hertzienne, Université de Bordeaux, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence, France (personal communication, 1999).

Rarity, J. G.

S. C. Kitson, P. Jonsson, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, Phys. Rev. A 58, 620 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

For a review see W. Tittel, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, Phys. World 11(3), 41 (1998).

Roger, G.

P. Grangier, G. Roger, and A. Aspect, Europhys. Lett. 1, 173 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, B. C.

N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 59, 3301 (1999); G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, Quantum Phys., abstr., in arXiv.org e-Print archive, http://arXiv.org/abs/quant-ph/?9911054.
[CrossRef]

Talon, H.

J. Bernard, L. Fleury, H. Talon, and M. Orrit, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 850 (1993).

Th. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tamarat, P.

C. Brunel, B. Lounis, P. Tamarat, and M. Orrit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2722 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tapster, P. R.

S. C. Kitson, P. Jonsson, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, Phys. Rev. A 58, 620 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thomaz, M. F.

A. T. Collins, M. F. Thomaz, and M. I. B. Jorge, J. Phys. C 16, 2177 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tietz, C.

A. Dräbenstedt, L. Fleury, C. Tietz, F. Jelezko, S. Kilin, A. Nizovtev, and J. Wrachtrup, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowki, Science 276, 2012 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

For a review see W. Tittel, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, Phys. World 11(3), 41 (1998).

von Borczyskowki, C.

A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowki, Science 276, 2012 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

F. Diedrich and H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 203 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wrachtrup, J.

A. Dräbenstedt, L. Fleury, C. Tietz, F. Jelezko, S. Kilin, A. Nizovtev, and J. Wrachtrup, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowki, Science 276, 2012 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

J. Kim, O. Benson, H. Kan, and Y. Yamamoto, Nature 397, 500 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett.

P. Grangier, G. Roger, and A. Aspect, Europhys. Lett. 1, 173 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

J. Bernard, L. Fleury, H. Talon, and M. Orrit, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 850 (1993).

J. Mod. Opt.

C. K. Law and H. J. Kimble, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 2067 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. C

A. T. Collins, M. F. Thomaz, and M. I. B. Jorge, J. Phys. C 16, 2177 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. Kim, O. Benson, H. Kan, and Y. Yamamoto, Nature 397, 500 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

S. C. Kitson, P. Jonsson, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, Phys. Rev. A 58, 620 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 59, 3301 (1999); G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, Quantum Phys., abstr., in arXiv.org e-Print archive, http://arXiv.org/abs/quant-ph/?9911054.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

A. Dräbenstedt, L. Fleury, C. Tietz, F. Jelezko, S. Kilin, A. Nizovtev, and J. Wrachtrup, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 691 (1977).
[CrossRef]

F. Diedrich and H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 203 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hong and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 58 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. de Martini, G. Di Giuseppe, and M. Marrocco, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 900 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Brunel, B. Lounis, P. Tamarat, and M. Orrit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2722 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. World

For a review see W. Tittel, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, Phys. World 11(3), 41 (1998).

Science

A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowki, Science 276, 2012 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

The avalanche triggered by the detection of a photon produces a backward flash of IR light, which has to be suppressed by appropriate filtering M. Orrit and C. Brunel, Centre de Physique Moléculaire Optique et Hertzienne, Université de Bordeaux, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence, France (personal communication, 1999).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. The sample fluorescence is excited and collected with a confocal-microscope setup. The intensity correlations are measured with two avalanche photodiodes (APD1 and APD2), a time-to-amplitude converter, and a multichannel analyzer. PZT, piezoelectric transducer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Confocal microscopy raster scan 5 µm×5 µm of the sample made 10 µm below the diamond surface. The size of a pixel is 60 nm, the integration time per pixel is 32 ms, and the laser intensity impinging upon the sample is 15 mW. (b) Line scan along the dashed line in (a). The data are shown together with a Gaussian fit, which we use to evaluate the signal and background levels. Here we obtain ρ=S/S+B=0.34.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized correlation function g2t corrected for the random coincidences from the background (ρ=0.34; see text). The data are for the NV center circled in Fig. 2(a). The actual number of coincidences is indicated at the right. The time bin is w=1 ns, the integration time is T=11450 s, and the single count rates are N1=5780 s-1 and N2=5990 s-1. Solid curve, an exponential fit to the data with the model described in Ref. 8.

Equations (1)

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g2t=CNt-1-ρ2/ρ2,

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