Abstract

The polarization self-modulation effect was applied for effective measurement of the characteristic response time of nominally pure Bi12SiO20 (BSO) at wavelengths of 810 and 980 nm. Owing to oxygen deficiency in the crystal lattice, the BSO crystals showed unusual photorefractive sensitivity and remarkable operation speed in the near-infrared spectral region. A response time of 130 ms was measured at 810 nm, and a response time of 540 ms was measured at 980 nm, with incident intensities of 110 and 200 mW/cm2, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence of a subsecond response in the infrared for a nonsemiconductor photorefractive material.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. P. Huignard and J. P. Herriau, Appl. Opt. 17, 2671 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. P. Huignard, J. P. Herriau, and T. Valentin, Appl. Opt. 16, 2796 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

E. Nippolainen, E. Raita, V. V. Prokofiev, A. A. Kamshilin, and T. Jaaskelainen, Opt. Mater. 14, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

A. A. Kamshilin, Y. Iida, S. Ashihara, T. Shimura, and K. Kuroda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2575 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Cedilnik, M. Esselbach, A. Kiessling, R. Kowarschik, E. Nippolainen, A. A. Kamshilin, and V. V. Prokofiev, Appl. Phys. B 68, 983 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Mokrushina, M. A. Bryushinin, V. V. Kulikov, A. A. Petrov, and I. A. Sokolov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kamshilin, A. V. Khomenko, C. A. Fuentes-Hernandez, and K. Paivasaari, Opt. Lett. 24, 832 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. M. Shandarov, O. V. Kobozev, A. V. Reshet’ko, M. G. Krause, V. V. Volkov, and Y. F. Kargin, Ferroelectrics 202, 257 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. V. Mokrushina, A. A. Nechitailov, and V. V. Prokofiev, Opt. Commun. 123, 592 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

A. A. Kamshilin, R. Ravattinen, H. Tuovinen, T. Jaaskelainen, and V. V. Prokofiev, Opt. Commun. 103, 221 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Sochava, E. V. Mokrushina, V. V. Prokofiev, and S. I. Stepanov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1600 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

S. L. Sochava and S. I. Stepanov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 15, 594 (1989).

M. P. Petrov, S. L. Sochava, and S. I. Stepanov, Opt. Lett. 14, 284 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

J. P. Herriau and J. P. Huignard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1140 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

Ashihara, S.

A. A. Kamshilin, Y. Iida, S. Ashihara, T. Shimura, and K. Kuroda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2575 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boutsikaris, L.

Bryushinin, M. A.

Cedilnik, G.

G. Cedilnik, M. Esselbach, A. Kiessling, R. Kowarschik, E. Nippolainen, A. A. Kamshilin, and V. V. Prokofiev, Appl. Phys. B 68, 983 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Nippolainen, V. V. Prokofiev, A. A. Kamshilin, T. Jaaskelainen, G. Cedilnik, M. Esselbach, A. Kiessling, and R. Kowarschik, in Advances in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, P. E. Andersen, P. M. Johansen, H. C. Pedersen, P. M. Petersen, and M. Saffman, eds., Vol. 27 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 333.

Esselbach, M.

G. Cedilnik, M. Esselbach, A. Kiessling, R. Kowarschik, E. Nippolainen, A. A. Kamshilin, and V. V. Prokofiev, Appl. Phys. B 68, 983 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Nippolainen, V. V. Prokofiev, A. A. Kamshilin, T. Jaaskelainen, G. Cedilnik, M. Esselbach, A. Kiessling, and R. Kowarschik, in Advances in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, P. E. Andersen, P. M. Johansen, H. C. Pedersen, P. M. Petersen, and M. Saffman, eds., Vol. 27 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 333.

Fuentes-Hernandez, C. A.

Herriau, J. P.

Huignard, J. P.

Iida, Y.

A. A. Kamshilin, Y. Iida, S. Ashihara, T. Shimura, and K. Kuroda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2575 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jaaskelainen, T.

E. Nippolainen, E. Raita, V. V. Prokofiev, A. A. Kamshilin, and T. Jaaskelainen, Opt. Mater. 14, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kamshilin, R. Ravattinen, H. Tuovinen, T. Jaaskelainen, and V. V. Prokofiev, Opt. Commun. 103, 221 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Nippolainen, V. V. Prokofiev, A. A. Kamshilin, T. Jaaskelainen, G. Cedilnik, M. Esselbach, A. Kiessling, and R. Kowarschik, in Advances in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, P. E. Andersen, P. M. Johansen, H. C. Pedersen, P. M. Petersen, and M. Saffman, eds., Vol. 27 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 333.

Kamshilin, A. A.

E. Nippolainen, E. Raita, V. V. Prokofiev, A. A. Kamshilin, and T. Jaaskelainen, Opt. Mater. 14, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kamshilin, Y. Iida, S. Ashihara, T. Shimura, and K. Kuroda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2575 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kamshilin, A. V. Khomenko, C. A. Fuentes-Hernandez, and K. Paivasaari, Opt. Lett. 24, 832 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Cedilnik, M. Esselbach, A. Kiessling, R. Kowarschik, E. Nippolainen, A. A. Kamshilin, and V. V. Prokofiev, Appl. Phys. B 68, 983 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kamshilin, R. Ravattinen, H. Tuovinen, T. Jaaskelainen, and V. V. Prokofiev, Opt. Commun. 103, 221 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Nippolainen, V. V. Prokofiev, A. A. Kamshilin, T. Jaaskelainen, G. Cedilnik, M. Esselbach, A. Kiessling, and R. Kowarschik, in Advances in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, P. E. Andersen, P. M. Johansen, H. C. Pedersen, P. M. Petersen, and M. Saffman, eds., Vol. 27 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 333.

Kargin, Y. F.

S. M. Shandarov, O. V. Kobozev, A. V. Reshet’ko, M. G. Krause, V. V. Volkov, and Y. F. Kargin, Ferroelectrics 202, 257 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khomenko, A. V.

Kiessling, A.

G. Cedilnik, M. Esselbach, A. Kiessling, R. Kowarschik, E. Nippolainen, A. A. Kamshilin, and V. V. Prokofiev, Appl. Phys. B 68, 983 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Nippolainen, V. V. Prokofiev, A. A. Kamshilin, T. Jaaskelainen, G. Cedilnik, M. Esselbach, A. Kiessling, and R. Kowarschik, in Advances in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, P. E. Andersen, P. M. Johansen, H. C. Pedersen, P. M. Petersen, and M. Saffman, eds., Vol. 27 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 333.

Kobozev, O. V.

S. M. Shandarov, O. V. Kobozev, A. V. Reshet’ko, M. G. Krause, V. V. Volkov, and Y. F. Kargin, Ferroelectrics 202, 257 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kowarschik, R.

G. Cedilnik, M. Esselbach, A. Kiessling, R. Kowarschik, E. Nippolainen, A. A. Kamshilin, and V. V. Prokofiev, Appl. Phys. B 68, 983 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Nippolainen, V. V. Prokofiev, A. A. Kamshilin, T. Jaaskelainen, G. Cedilnik, M. Esselbach, A. Kiessling, and R. Kowarschik, in Advances in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, P. E. Andersen, P. M. Johansen, H. C. Pedersen, P. M. Petersen, and M. Saffman, eds., Vol. 27 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 333.

Krause, M. G.

S. M. Shandarov, O. V. Kobozev, A. V. Reshet’ko, M. G. Krause, V. V. Volkov, and Y. F. Kargin, Ferroelectrics 202, 257 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kulikov, V. V.

Kuroda, K.

A. A. Kamshilin, Y. Iida, S. Ashihara, T. Shimura, and K. Kuroda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2575 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mailis, S.

Mokrushina, E. V.

Nechitailov, A. A.

E. V. Mokrushina, A. A. Nechitailov, and V. V. Prokofiev, Opt. Commun. 123, 592 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nippolainen, E.

E. Nippolainen, E. Raita, V. V. Prokofiev, A. A. Kamshilin, and T. Jaaskelainen, Opt. Mater. 14, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Cedilnik, M. Esselbach, A. Kiessling, R. Kowarschik, E. Nippolainen, A. A. Kamshilin, and V. V. Prokofiev, Appl. Phys. B 68, 983 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Nippolainen, V. V. Prokofiev, A. A. Kamshilin, T. Jaaskelainen, G. Cedilnik, M. Esselbach, A. Kiessling, and R. Kowarschik, in Advances in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, P. E. Andersen, P. M. Johansen, H. C. Pedersen, P. M. Petersen, and M. Saffman, eds., Vol. 27 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 333.

Odoulov, S. G.

S. L. Sochava, S. I. Stepanov, S. G. Odoulov, S. S. Slyussarenko, and K. V. Shcherbin, in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices II, (Societé Francaise d’Optique, Paris, 1990), p. 314.

Paivasaari, K.

Petrov, A. A.

Petrov, M. P.

M. P. Petrov, S. L. Sochava, and S. I. Stepanov, Opt. Lett. 14, 284 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Stepanov and M. P. Petrov, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I. Fundamental Phenomena, P. Günter and J. P. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), pp. 263–289.
[CrossRef]

Prokofiev, V. V.

E. Nippolainen, E. Raita, V. V. Prokofiev, A. A. Kamshilin, and T. Jaaskelainen, Opt. Mater. 14, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Cedilnik, M. Esselbach, A. Kiessling, R. Kowarschik, E. Nippolainen, A. A. Kamshilin, and V. V. Prokofiev, Appl. Phys. B 68, 983 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Mokrushina, A. A. Nechitailov, and V. V. Prokofiev, Opt. Commun. 123, 592 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kamshilin, R. Ravattinen, H. Tuovinen, T. Jaaskelainen, and V. V. Prokofiev, Opt. Commun. 103, 221 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Sochava, E. V. Mokrushina, V. V. Prokofiev, and S. I. Stepanov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1600 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Nippolainen, V. V. Prokofiev, A. A. Kamshilin, T. Jaaskelainen, G. Cedilnik, M. Esselbach, A. Kiessling, and R. Kowarschik, in Advances in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, P. E. Andersen, P. M. Johansen, H. C. Pedersen, P. M. Petersen, and M. Saffman, eds., Vol. 27 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 333.

Raita, E.

E. Nippolainen, E. Raita, V. V. Prokofiev, A. A. Kamshilin, and T. Jaaskelainen, Opt. Mater. 14, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ravattinen, R.

A. A. Kamshilin, R. Ravattinen, H. Tuovinen, T. Jaaskelainen, and V. V. Prokofiev, Opt. Commun. 103, 221 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reshet’ko, A. V.

S. M. Shandarov, O. V. Kobozev, A. V. Reshet’ko, M. G. Krause, V. V. Volkov, and Y. F. Kargin, Ferroelectrics 202, 257 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shandarov, S. M.

S. M. Shandarov, O. V. Kobozev, A. V. Reshet’ko, M. G. Krause, V. V. Volkov, and Y. F. Kargin, Ferroelectrics 202, 257 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbin, K. V.

S. L. Sochava, S. I. Stepanov, S. G. Odoulov, S. S. Slyussarenko, and K. V. Shcherbin, in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices II, (Societé Francaise d’Optique, Paris, 1990), p. 314.

Shimura, T.

A. A. Kamshilin, Y. Iida, S. Ashihara, T. Shimura, and K. Kuroda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2575 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Slyussarenko, S. S.

S. L. Sochava, S. I. Stepanov, S. G. Odoulov, S. S. Slyussarenko, and K. V. Shcherbin, in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices II, (Societé Francaise d’Optique, Paris, 1990), p. 314.

Sochava, S. L.

S. L. Sochava, E. V. Mokrushina, V. V. Prokofiev, and S. I. Stepanov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1600 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Petrov, S. L. Sochava, and S. I. Stepanov, Opt. Lett. 14, 284 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Sochava and S. I. Stepanov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 15, 594 (1989).

S. L. Sochava, S. I. Stepanov, S. G. Odoulov, S. S. Slyussarenko, and K. V. Shcherbin, in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices II, (Societé Francaise d’Optique, Paris, 1990), p. 314.

Sokolov, I. A.

Stepanov, S. I.

S. L. Sochava, E. V. Mokrushina, V. V. Prokofiev, and S. I. Stepanov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1600 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Petrov, S. L. Sochava, and S. I. Stepanov, Opt. Lett. 14, 284 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Sochava and S. I. Stepanov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 15, 594 (1989).

S. L. Sochava, S. I. Stepanov, S. G. Odoulov, S. S. Slyussarenko, and K. V. Shcherbin, in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices II, (Societé Francaise d’Optique, Paris, 1990), p. 314.

S. I. Stepanov and M. P. Petrov, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I. Fundamental Phenomena, P. Günter and J. P. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), pp. 263–289.
[CrossRef]

Tuovinen, H.

A. A. Kamshilin, R. Ravattinen, H. Tuovinen, T. Jaaskelainen, and V. V. Prokofiev, Opt. Commun. 103, 221 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vainos, N. A.

Valentin, T.

Volkov, V. V.

S. M. Shandarov, O. V. Kobozev, A. V. Reshet’ko, M. G. Krause, V. V. Volkov, and Y. F. Kargin, Ferroelectrics 202, 257 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. Cedilnik, M. Esselbach, A. Kiessling, R. Kowarschik, E. Nippolainen, A. A. Kamshilin, and V. V. Prokofiev, Appl. Phys. B 68, 983 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. P. Herriau and J. P. Huignard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1140 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kamshilin, Y. Iida, S. Ashihara, T. Shimura, and K. Kuroda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2575 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

S. M. Shandarov, O. V. Kobozev, A. V. Reshet’ko, M. G. Krause, V. V. Volkov, and Y. F. Kargin, Ferroelectrics 202, 257 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. A. Kamshilin, R. Ravattinen, H. Tuovinen, T. Jaaskelainen, and V. V. Prokofiev, Opt. Commun. 103, 221 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Mokrushina, A. A. Nechitailov, and V. V. Prokofiev, Opt. Commun. 123, 592 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

E. Nippolainen, E. Raita, V. V. Prokofiev, A. A. Kamshilin, and T. Jaaskelainen, Opt. Mater. 14, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. L. Sochava and S. I. Stepanov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 15, 594 (1989).

Other (3)

S. L. Sochava, S. I. Stepanov, S. G. Odoulov, S. S. Slyussarenko, and K. V. Shcherbin, in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices II, (Societé Francaise d’Optique, Paris, 1990), p. 314.

S. I. Stepanov and M. P. Petrov, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I. Fundamental Phenomena, P. Günter and J. P. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), pp. 263–289.
[CrossRef]

E. Nippolainen, V. V. Prokofiev, A. A. Kamshilin, T. Jaaskelainen, G. Cedilnik, M. Esselbach, A. Kiessling, and R. Kowarschik, in Advances in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, P. E. Andersen, P. M. Johansen, H. C. Pedersen, P. M. Petersen, and M. Saffman, eds., Vol. 27 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 333.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical setup for measurement of response time by use of the PSM effect. The light emitted by a laser diode (LD) is scattered by a vibrating piezoceramic plate (piezo). L1, L2, lens systems; P, polarizer; PA, polarization analyzer; PD, photodetector. External ac electric voltage is applied to the BSO crystal. The amplitude of the electric field is 10 kV/cm, and its frequency is 100 Hz.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fragments of the signal measured in the BSO crystal with illumination intensity of 100 mW/cm2 at λ=810 nm. The periods of the signal correspond to the semicycles of the applied voltage, so the duration of one fragment is 5 ms. The starting point of each fragment is denoted by time tS. Fragment 1 corresponds to the situation immediately after the illumination is switched on, and fragment 5 shows the saturation level. The modulation frequency is 2 kHz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal evolution of the intensity-modulation amplitude in the BSO crystal at λ=807 nm. Filled circles, experimental point; solid curve, results of fitting the experimental data. The illumination intensity is 100 mW/cm2. The calculated response time is 160 ms.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity dependence of the response time of the speckle-pattern-induced space-charge field in BSO at (squares) 810 nm and (circles) 980 nm. The amplitude of the applied electric field is 10 kV/cm.

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