Abstract

A Doppler lidar system based on the molecular double-edge technique is described. The system is mounted in a modified van to permit deployment in field operations. The lidar operates with a tripled Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm, a 45-cm-aperture telescope, and a matching azimuth-over-elevation scanner to permit full sky access. Validated atmospheric wind profiles were measured from 1.8 to 35 km with a 178-m vertical resolution. The range-dependent rms deviation of the horizontal wind speed is 0.46 m/s. The measured wind speed and direction are in good agreement with the rawinsonde wind measurements made simultaneously from the same location.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. Atlas, J. Molinari, D. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. Menzies, T. Krishnamurti, R. Brown, M. J. Post, J. Anderson, A. Lorenc, and J. McElroy, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869 (1995).
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1999 (2)

1998 (1)

1997 (3)

1995 (1)

W. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. Atlas, J. Molinari, D. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. Menzies, T. Krishnamurti, R. Brown, M. J. Post, J. Anderson, A. Lorenc, and J. McElroy, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

1989 (1)

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, and J. Porteneuve, Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J.

W. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. Atlas, J. Molinari, D. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. Menzies, T. Krishnamurti, R. Brown, M. J. Post, J. Anderson, A. Lorenc, and J. McElroy, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Atlas, R.

W. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. Atlas, J. Molinari, D. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. Menzies, T. Krishnamurti, R. Brown, M. J. Post, J. Anderson, A. Lorenc, and J. McElroy, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baker, W.

W. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. Atlas, J. Molinari, D. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. Menzies, T. Krishnamurti, R. Brown, M. J. Post, J. Anderson, A. Lorenc, and J. McElroy, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bowdle, D.

W. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. Atlas, J. Molinari, D. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. Menzies, T. Krishnamurti, R. Brown, M. J. Post, J. Anderson, A. Lorenc, and J. McElroy, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R.

W. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. Atlas, J. Molinari, D. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. Menzies, T. Krishnamurti, R. Brown, M. J. Post, J. Anderson, A. Lorenc, and J. McElroy, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Castleberg, P.

Chanin, M. L.

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, and J. Porteneuve, Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

B. Gentry, S. Li, C. L. Korb, S. Mathur, and H. Chen, in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 587.

Emmitt, G. D.

W. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. Atlas, J. Molinari, D. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. Menzies, T. Krishnamurti, R. Brown, M. J. Post, J. Anderson, A. Lorenc, and J. McElroy, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flesia, C.

Friedman, J. S.

Garnier, A.

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, A. Hauchecorne, and J. Porteneuve, Appl. Opt. 38, 2410 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, and J. Porteneuve, Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gentry, B.

B. Gentry and C. L. Korb, Appl. Opt. 33, 5770 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Gentry, S. Li, C. L. Korb, S. Mathur, and H. Chen, in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 587.

Gentry, B. M.

Hardesty, R. M.

W. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. Atlas, J. Molinari, D. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. Menzies, T. Krishnamurti, R. Brown, M. J. Post, J. Anderson, A. Lorenc, and J. McElroy, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hauchecorne, A.

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, A. Hauchecorne, and J. Porteneuve, Appl. Opt. 38, 2410 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, and J. Porteneuve, Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hertzog, A.

Irgang, T. D.

Korb, C. L.

Krishnamurti, T.

W. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. Atlas, J. Molinari, D. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. Menzies, T. Krishnamurti, R. Brown, M. J. Post, J. Anderson, A. Lorenc, and J. McElroy, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

B. Gentry, S. Li, C. L. Korb, S. Mathur, and H. Chen, in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 587.

Li, S. X.

Lorenc, A.

W. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. Atlas, J. Molinari, D. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. Menzies, T. Krishnamurti, R. Brown, M. J. Post, J. Anderson, A. Lorenc, and J. McElroy, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mathur, S.

B. Gentry, S. Li, C. L. Korb, S. Mathur, and H. Chen, in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 587.

McElroy, J.

W. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. Atlas, J. Molinari, D. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. Menzies, T. Krishnamurti, R. Brown, M. J. Post, J. Anderson, A. Lorenc, and J. McElroy, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McGill, M. J.

Menzies, R.

W. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. Atlas, J. Molinari, D. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. Menzies, T. Krishnamurti, R. Brown, M. J. Post, J. Anderson, A. Lorenc, and J. McElroy, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Molinari, J.

W. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. Atlas, J. Molinari, D. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. Menzies, T. Krishnamurti, R. Brown, M. J. Post, J. Anderson, A. Lorenc, and J. McElroy, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Paegle, J.

W. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. Atlas, J. Molinari, D. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. Menzies, T. Krishnamurti, R. Brown, M. J. Post, J. Anderson, A. Lorenc, and J. McElroy, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Porteneuve, J.

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, A. Hauchecorne, and J. Porteneuve, Appl. Opt. 38, 2410 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, and J. Porteneuve, Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Post, M. J.

W. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. Atlas, J. Molinari, D. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. Menzies, T. Krishnamurti, R. Brown, M. J. Post, J. Anderson, A. Lorenc, and J. McElroy, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, F.

W. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. Atlas, J. Molinari, D. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. Menzies, T. Krishnamurti, R. Brown, M. J. Post, J. Anderson, A. Lorenc, and J. McElroy, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roe, H.

Skinner, W. R.

Souprayen, C.

Tepley, C.

Weng, C. Y.

Appl. Opt. (7)

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

W. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. Atlas, J. Molinari, D. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. Menzies, T. Krishnamurti, R. Brown, M. J. Post, J. Anderson, A. Lorenc, and J. McElroy, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, and J. Porteneuve, Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

B. Gentry, S. Li, C. L. Korb, S. Mathur, and H. Chen, in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 587.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectra of the atmospheric backscattered Rayleigh and aerosol signals along with three etalon transmission functions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical diagram of the 355-nm molecular wind lidar system: BS1–BS4, beam splitters; EM, energy monitor; PC, photon-counting; M1, M2, mirrors; IF, interference filter; EXP, beam expander.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Profiles of wind speed and direction measured by the molecular lidar system compared with data from a colocated balloon sonde on November 17, 1999.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Molecular Doppler Lidar System Parameters

Equations (2)

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θ=rrv=I1I1v-I2I2v.
vLOS=r+v-r--vr+v+r--v1θ.

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