Abstract

We report the observation of nematic director distortions around the diffracting element of a liquid-crystal point-diffraction interferometer. The observed director field distortions are similar to those reported in the literature for other liquid-crystal guest–host systems. We show how the alignment distortion changes as a function of the voltage applied to the liquid-crystal cell, leading to an observed phase-shift error. Tailoring of surface anchoring conditions and judicious choice of phase-shift algorithm can improve device accuracy.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. R. Mercer and K. Creath, Opt. Lett. 19, 916 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. R. Mercer and K. Creath, Appl. Opt. 35, 1633 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  4. V. P. Linnik, C. R. Acad. Sci. (USSR) 1, 208 (1933).
  5. R. N. Smartt and W. H. Steel, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 351 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Poulin, N. Frances, and O. Mondain-Monval, Phys. Rev. E 59, 4384 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Glushchenko, H. Kresse, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, and O. Yaroshchukt, Liq. Cryst. 23, 241 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Poulin and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. E 57, 626 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Stark, J. Stelzer, and R. Bernhard, Eur. Phys. J. B 10, 515 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. O. Mondain-Monval, J. C. Dedieu, T. Gulik-Krzywicki, and P. Poulin, Eur. Phys. J. B 12, 167 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Hibino, B. F. Oreb, D. I. Farrant, and K. G. Larkin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 918 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. J. Guardalben, L. Ning, N. Jain, D. J. Battaglia, and K. L. Marshall, Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Comparison of the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer and an industry-standard phase-shifting interferometer.”

1999 (3)

P. Poulin, N. Frances, and O. Mondain-Monval, Phys. Rev. E 59, 4384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Stark, J. Stelzer, and R. Bernhard, Eur. Phys. J. B 10, 515 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Mondain-Monval, J. C. Dedieu, T. Gulik-Krzywicki, and P. Poulin, Eur. Phys. J. B 12, 167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. Poulin and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. E 57, 626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

K. Hibino, B. F. Oreb, D. I. Farrant, and K. G. Larkin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 918 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Glushchenko, H. Kresse, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, and O. Yaroshchukt, Liq. Cryst. 23, 241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1987 (1)

1975 (1)

R. N. Smartt and W. H. Steel, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 351 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1933 (1)

V. P. Linnik, C. R. Acad. Sci. (USSR) 1, 208 (1933).

Battaglia, D. J.

M. J. Guardalben, L. Ning, N. Jain, D. J. Battaglia, and K. L. Marshall, Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Comparison of the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer and an industry-standard phase-shifting interferometer.”

Bernhard, R.

H. Stark, J. Stelzer, and R. Bernhard, Eur. Phys. J. B 10, 515 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Creath, K.

Dedieu, J. C.

O. Mondain-Monval, J. C. Dedieu, T. Gulik-Krzywicki, and P. Poulin, Eur. Phys. J. B 12, 167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eiju, T.

Farrant, D. I.

Frances, N.

P. Poulin, N. Frances, and O. Mondain-Monval, Phys. Rev. E 59, 4384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Glushchenko, A.

A. Glushchenko, H. Kresse, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, and O. Yaroshchukt, Liq. Cryst. 23, 241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guardalben, M. J.

M. J. Guardalben, L. Ning, N. Jain, D. J. Battaglia, and K. L. Marshall, Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Comparison of the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer and an industry-standard phase-shifting interferometer.”

Gulik-Krzywicki, T.

O. Mondain-Monval, J. C. Dedieu, T. Gulik-Krzywicki, and P. Poulin, Eur. Phys. J. B 12, 167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hariharan, P.

Hibino, K.

Jain, N.

M. J. Guardalben, L. Ning, N. Jain, D. J. Battaglia, and K. L. Marshall, Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Comparison of the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer and an industry-standard phase-shifting interferometer.”

Kresse, H.

A. Glushchenko, H. Kresse, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, and O. Yaroshchukt, Liq. Cryst. 23, 241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Larkin, K. G.

Linnik, V. P.

V. P. Linnik, C. R. Acad. Sci. (USSR) 1, 208 (1933).

Marshall, K. L.

M. J. Guardalben, L. Ning, N. Jain, D. J. Battaglia, and K. L. Marshall, Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Comparison of the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer and an industry-standard phase-shifting interferometer.”

Mercer, C. R.

Mondain-Monval, O.

O. Mondain-Monval, J. C. Dedieu, T. Gulik-Krzywicki, and P. Poulin, Eur. Phys. J. B 12, 167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Poulin, N. Frances, and O. Mondain-Monval, Phys. Rev. E 59, 4384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ning, L.

M. J. Guardalben, L. Ning, N. Jain, D. J. Battaglia, and K. L. Marshall, Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Comparison of the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer and an industry-standard phase-shifting interferometer.”

Oreb, B. F.

Poulin, P.

O. Mondain-Monval, J. C. Dedieu, T. Gulik-Krzywicki, and P. Poulin, Eur. Phys. J. B 12, 167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Poulin, N. Frances, and O. Mondain-Monval, Phys. Rev. E 59, 4384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Poulin and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. E 57, 626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reshetnyak, V.

A. Glushchenko, H. Kresse, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, and O. Yaroshchukt, Liq. Cryst. 23, 241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reznikov, Y.

A. Glushchenko, H. Kresse, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, and O. Yaroshchukt, Liq. Cryst. 23, 241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smartt, R. N.

R. N. Smartt and W. H. Steel, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 351 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Stark, H.

H. Stark, J. Stelzer, and R. Bernhard, Eur. Phys. J. B 10, 515 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steel, W. H.

R. N. Smartt and W. H. Steel, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 351 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Stelzer, J.

H. Stark, J. Stelzer, and R. Bernhard, Eur. Phys. J. B 10, 515 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weitz, D. A.

P. Poulin and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. E 57, 626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yaroshchukt, O.

A. Glushchenko, H. Kresse, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, and O. Yaroshchukt, Liq. Cryst. 23, 241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

C. R. Acad. Sci. (USSR) (1)

V. P. Linnik, C. R. Acad. Sci. (USSR) 1, 208 (1933).

Eur. Phys. J. B (2)

H. Stark, J. Stelzer, and R. Bernhard, Eur. Phys. J. B 10, 515 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Mondain-Monval, J. C. Dedieu, T. Gulik-Krzywicki, and P. Poulin, Eur. Phys. J. B 12, 167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. N. Smartt and W. H. Steel, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 351 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

A. Glushchenko, H. Kresse, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, and O. Yaroshchukt, Liq. Cryst. 23, 241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E (2)

P. Poulin and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. E 57, 626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Poulin, N. Frances, and O. Mondain-Monval, Phys. Rev. E 59, 4384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. J. Guardalben, L. Ning, N. Jain, D. J. Battaglia, and K. L. Marshall, Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Comparison of the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer and an industry-standard phase-shifting interferometer.”

K. Creath, in Progress in Optics XXVI, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1988), Chap. V.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the LCPDI.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarizing microscope images of a 10µm silica microsphere in a 10µm-path E7 host. The voltage waveform was a 2-kHz sine wave.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarizing microscope images of a 20µm silica microsphere in a 20µm-path E7 host. The voltage waveform was the same as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interference fringes obtained by focusing of a 543-nm laser beam at f/16 into the LCPDI of Fig. 2, revealing the effect of director distortions having quadrupolar symmetry.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Interference fringes as in Fig. 4 but with displaced focal position. Quadrupolar symmetry is less evident at intermediate voltages than in Fig. 4. Loss of contrast as a result of dichroism of the dye molecules is observed at high voltage.

Equations (2)

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ϵα0r=exp-Aα0rfx,y,
fx,y=H1-exp-Bx2+Cy2×exp-Dx2+Ey21/2/FG×sintan-1Kx/My,

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