Abstract

We present the first experimental observation of 2+1-dimensional multimode (composite) solitons. A single-hump component and a double-hump (dipole-type) component are jointly self-trapped as a composite soliton in a biased photorefractive crystal.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, L. Poladian, and F. Landouceur, Opt. Lett. 16, 21 (1991); A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, and Y. S. Kivshar, Mod. Phys. Lett. B 9, 1479 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. For a recent review of optical spatial solitons, see G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. In Kerr materials, and under special conditions, this can lead to Manakov solitons; see J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. In saturable nonlinearities (such as photorefractives), this gives Manakov-like solitons; see Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 21, 1436 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. N. Christodoulides and R. I. Joseph, Opt. Lett. 13, 53 (1988);M. V. Tratnik and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. A 38, 2001 (1988); M. Haelterman, A. P. Sheppard, and A. W. Snyder, Opt. Lett. 18, 1406 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. W. Snyder, S. J. Hewlett, and D. J. Mitchell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1012 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Mitchell, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4657 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. A. Ostrovskaya, Y. S. Kivshar, D. V. Skryabin, and W. J. Firth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 296 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1164 (2000); Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 25, 61 (2000); J. N. Malmberg, A. H. Carlsson, D. Anderson, M. Lisak, E. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 25, 643 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. J. Garcia-Ripoll, V. M. Perez-Garcia, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dipole mode vector solitons,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.
  12. W. Krolikowski, N. Akhmediev, and B. Luther-Davies, Phys. Rev. E 59, 4654 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, E. M. Wright, and G. I. Stegeman, Opt. Lett. 13, 871 (1988); M. Shalaby and A. J. Barthelemy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2736 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. N. Christodoulides, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, and M. Segev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1763 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. Kip, C. Anastassiou, E. Eugenevia, D. Christo-doulides, and M. Segev, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CTuJ3.

2000

Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1164 (2000); Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 25, 61 (2000); J. N. Malmberg, A. H. Carlsson, D. Anderson, M. Lisak, E. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 25, 643 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

W. Krolikowski, N. Akhmediev, and B. Luther-Davies, Phys. Rev. E 59, 4654 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

For a recent review of optical spatial solitons, see G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Ostrovskaya, Y. S. Kivshar, D. V. Skryabin, and W. J. Firth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

In Kerr materials, and under special conditions, this can lead to Manakov solitons; see J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

In saturable nonlinearities (such as photorefractives), this gives Manakov-like solitons; see Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 21, 1436 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, and M. Segev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Snyder, S. J. Hewlett, and D. J. Mitchell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1012 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

1988

Aitchison, J. S.

In Kerr materials, and under special conditions, this can lead to Manakov solitons; see J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akhmediev, N.

W. Krolikowski, N. Akhmediev, and B. Luther-Davies, Phys. Rev. E 59, 4654 (1999).
[CrossRef]

In Kerr materials, and under special conditions, this can lead to Manakov solitons; see J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anastassiou, C.

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, C. Anastassiou, E. Eugenevia, D. Christo-doulides, and M. Segev, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CTuJ3.

Carvalho, M. I.

D. N. Christodoulides, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, and M. Segev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1164 (2000); Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 25, 61 (2000); J. N. Malmberg, A. H. Carlsson, D. Anderson, M. Lisak, E. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 25, 643 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

In saturable nonlinearities (such as photorefractives), this gives Manakov-like solitons; see Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 21, 1436 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, and M. Segev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides and R. I. Joseph, Opt. Lett. 13, 53 (1988);M. V. Tratnik and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. A 38, 2001 (1988); M. Haelterman, A. P. Sheppard, and A. W. Snyder, Opt. Lett. 18, 1406 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christo-doulides, D.

D. Kip, C. Anastassiou, E. Eugenevia, D. Christo-doulides, and M. Segev, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CTuJ3.

Coskun, T.

Crosignani, B.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiPorto, P.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eugenevia, E.

D. Kip, C. Anastassiou, E. Eugenevia, D. Christo-doulides, and M. Segev, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CTuJ3.

Firth, W. J.

E. A. Ostrovskaya, Y. S. Kivshar, D. V. Skryabin, and W. J. Firth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Ripoll, J. J.

J. J. Garcia-Ripoll, V. M. Perez-Garcia, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dipole mode vector solitons,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Giordmaine, J. A.

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hewlett, S. J.

A. W. Snyder, S. J. Hewlett, and D. J. Mitchell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1012 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joseph, R. I.

Kang, J. U.

In Kerr materials, and under special conditions, this can lead to Manakov solitons; see J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kip, D.

D. Kip, C. Anastassiou, E. Eugenevia, D. Christo-doulides, and M. Segev, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CTuJ3.

Kivshar, Y. S.

E. A. Ostrovskaya, Y. S. Kivshar, D. V. Skryabin, and W. J. Firth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Garcia-Ripoll, V. M. Perez-Garcia, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dipole mode vector solitons,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Krolikowski, W.

W. Krolikowski, N. Akhmediev, and B. Luther-Davies, Phys. Rev. E 59, 4654 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lan, S.

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Landouceur, F.

Luther-Davies, B.

W. Krolikowski, N. Akhmediev, and B. Luther-Davies, Phys. Rev. E 59, 4654 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J.

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, D. J.

Mitchell, M.

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Musslimani, Z. H.

Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1164 (2000); Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 25, 61 (2000); J. N. Malmberg, A. H. Carlsson, D. Anderson, M. Lisak, E. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 25, 643 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ostrovskaya, E. A.

E. A. Ostrovskaya, Y. S. Kivshar, D. V. Skryabin, and W. J. Firth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Garcia-Ripoll, V. M. Perez-Garcia, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dipole mode vector solitons,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Perez-Garcia, V. M.

J. J. Garcia-Ripoll, V. M. Perez-Garcia, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dipole mode vector solitons,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Poladian, L.

Salamo, G.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segev, M.

Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1164 (2000); Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 25, 61 (2000); J. N. Malmberg, A. H. Carlsson, D. Anderson, M. Lisak, E. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 25, 643 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

For a recent review of optical spatial solitons, see G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

In saturable nonlinearities (such as photorefractives), this gives Manakov-like solitons; see Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 21, 1436 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, and M. Segev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kip, C. Anastassiou, E. Eugenevia, D. Christo-doulides, and M. Segev, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CTuJ3.

Shih, M.

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, S. R.

D. N. Christodoulides, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, and M. Segev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Skryabin, D. V.

E. A. Ostrovskaya, Y. S. Kivshar, D. V. Skryabin, and W. J. Firth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, A. W.

Soljacic, M.

Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1164 (2000); Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 25, 61 (2000); J. N. Malmberg, A. H. Carlsson, D. Anderson, M. Lisak, E. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 25, 643 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G. I.

For a recent review of optical spatial solitons, see G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

In Kerr materials, and under special conditions, this can lead to Manakov solitons; see J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, E. M. Wright, and G. I. Stegeman, Opt. Lett. 13, 871 (1988); M. Shalaby and A. J. Barthelemy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2736 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiglitz, K.

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Trillo, S.

Valley, G. C.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wabnitz, S.

Wright, E. M.

Yariv, A.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. N. Christodoulides, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, and M. Segev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E

W. Krolikowski, N. Akhmediev, and B. Luther-Davies, Phys. Rev. E 59, 4654 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Snyder, S. J. Hewlett, and D. J. Mitchell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1012 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Ostrovskaya, Y. S. Kivshar, D. V. Skryabin, and W. J. Firth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1164 (2000); Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 25, 61 (2000); J. N. Malmberg, A. H. Carlsson, D. Anderson, M. Lisak, E. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 25, 643 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

In Kerr materials, and under special conditions, this can lead to Manakov solitons; see J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

For a recent review of optical spatial solitons, see G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. J. Garcia-Ripoll, V. M. Perez-Garcia, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dipole mode vector solitons,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. Kip, C. Anastassiou, E. Eugenevia, D. Christo-doulides, and M. Segev, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CTuJ3.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Double-hump multimode 2+1D soliton with uo2=dpeak2=14. (a)–(c) Input intensities: (a) u2, (b) d2, (c) u2+d2. (d)–(f) Diffracted output intensities with nonlinearity off: (d) u2, (e) d2, (f) u2+d2. (g)–(i) Composite soliton output intensities at 4230 V/cm: (g) u2, (h) d2, (i) total intensity of the double-hump soliton, u2+d2. The individual stand-alone components at 4230 V/cm do not self-trap by themselves: (j) u2 by itself is distorted because the nonlinearity its too high for a scalar soliton, and (k) the stand-alone dipole forms two separate solitons that repel each other. The intensity in each part of the figure is normalized to the peak intensity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Same as in Fig. 1 but with uo2=30 and dpeak2=10. This single-hump soliton forms for an applied field of 4060 V/cm.

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