Abstract

We present the first experimental observation of (2+1) -dimensional multimode (composite) solitons. A single-hump component and a double-hump (dipole-type) component are jointly self-trapped as a composite soliton in a biased photorefractive crystal.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, L. Poladian, and F. Landouceur, Opt. Lett. 16, 21 (1991); A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, and Y. S. Kivshar, Mod. Phys. Lett. B 9, 1479 (1995).
  2. For a recent review of optical spatial solitons, see G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).
  3. M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091 (1997).
  4. In Kerr materials, and under special conditions, this can lead to Manakov solitons; see J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699 (1996).
  5. In saturable nonlinearities (such as photorefractives), this gives Manakov-like solitons; see Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 21, 1436 (1996).
  6. D. N. Christodoulides and R. I. Joseph, Opt. Lett. 13, 53 (1988); M. V. Tratnik and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. A 38, 2001 (1988) ; M. Haelterman, A. P. Sheppard, and A. W. Snyder, Opt. Lett.OPLEDP 18, 1406 (1993).
  7. A. W. Snyder, S. J. Hewlett, and D. J. Mitchell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1012 (1994).
  8. M. Mitchell, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4657 (1998).
  9. E. A. Ostrovskaya, Y. S. Kivshar, D. V. Skryabin, and W. J. Firth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 296 (1999).
  10. Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1164 (2000) ; Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 25, 61 (2000) ; J. N. Malmberg, A. H. Carlsson, D. Anderson, M. Lisak, E. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 25, 643 (2000).
  11. J. J. Garcia-Ripoll, V. M. Perez-Garcia, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dipole mode vector solitons,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.
  12. W. Krolikowski, N. Akhmediev, and B. Luther-Davies, Phys. Rev. E 59, 4654 (1999).
  13. S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, E. M. Wright, and G. I. Stegeman, Opt. Lett. 13, 871 (1988); M. Shalaby and A. J. Barthelemy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2736 (1992).
  14. D. N. Christodoulides, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, and M. Segev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1763 (1996).
  15. C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332 (1999).
  16. M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995) ; M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
  17. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994) ; D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. BJOBPDE 13, 706 (1996).
  18. D. Kip, C. Anastassiou, E. Eugenevia, D. Christodoulides, and M. Segev, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CTuJ3.

2000

Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1164 (2000) ; Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 25, 61 (2000) ; J. N. Malmberg, A. H. Carlsson, D. Anderson, M. Lisak, E. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 25, 643 (2000).

1999

W. Krolikowski, N. Akhmediev, and B. Luther-Davies, Phys. Rev. E 59, 4654 (1999).

For a recent review of optical spatial solitons, see G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).

E. A. Ostrovskaya, Y. S. Kivshar, D. V. Skryabin, and W. J. Firth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 296 (1999).

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332 (1999).

1998

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4657 (1998).

1997

1996

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995) ; M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).

In saturable nonlinearities (such as photorefractives), this gives Manakov-like solitons; see Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 21, 1436 (1996).

D. N. Christodoulides, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, and M. Segev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1763 (1996).

In Kerr materials, and under special conditions, this can lead to Manakov solitons; see J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699 (1996).

1994

A. W. Snyder, S. J. Hewlett, and D. J. Mitchell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1012 (1994).

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994) ; D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. BJOBPDE 13, 706 (1996).

1991

1988

Aitchison, J. S.

In Kerr materials, and under special conditions, this can lead to Manakov solitons; see J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699 (1996).

Akhmediev, N.

W. Krolikowski, N. Akhmediev, and B. Luther-Davies, Phys. Rev. E 59, 4654 (1999).

In Kerr materials, and under special conditions, this can lead to Manakov solitons; see J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699 (1996).

Anastassiou, C.

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332 (1999).

D. Kip, C. Anastassiou, E. Eugenevia, D. Christodoulides, and M. Segev, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CTuJ3.

Anderson, D.

Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1164 (2000) ; Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 25, 61 (2000) ; J. N. Malmberg, A. H. Carlsson, D. Anderson, M. Lisak, E. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 25, 643 (2000).

Barthelemy, A. J.

Carlsson, A. H.

Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1164 (2000) ; Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 25, 61 (2000) ; J. N. Malmberg, A. H. Carlsson, D. Anderson, M. Lisak, E. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 25, 643 (2000).

Carvalho, M. I.

D. N. Christodoulides, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, and M. Segev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1763 (1996).

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994) ; D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. BJOBPDE 13, 706 (1996).

Chen, Z.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1164 (2000) ; Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 25, 61 (2000) ; J. N. Malmberg, A. H. Carlsson, D. Anderson, M. Lisak, E. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 25, 643 (2000).

Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1164 (2000) ; Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 25, 61 (2000) ; J. N. Malmberg, A. H. Carlsson, D. Anderson, M. Lisak, E. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 25, 643 (2000).

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4657 (1998).

In saturable nonlinearities (such as photorefractives), this gives Manakov-like solitons; see Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 21, 1436 (1996).

D. N. Christodoulides, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, and M. Segev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1763 (1996).

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994) ; D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. BJOBPDE 13, 706 (1996).

D. N. Christodoulides and R. I. Joseph, Opt. Lett. 13, 53 (1988); M. V. Tratnik and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. A 38, 2001 (1988) ; M. Haelterman, A. P. Sheppard, and A. W. Snyder, Opt. Lett.OPLEDP 18, 1406 (1993).

Christo-doulides, D.

D. Kip, C. Anastassiou, E. Eugenevia, D. Christodoulides, and M. Segev, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CTuJ3.

Coskun, T.

Crosignani, B.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995) ; M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994) ; D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. BJOBPDE 13, 706 (1996).

DiPorto, P.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995) ; M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994) ; D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. BJOBPDE 13, 706 (1996).

Eugenevia, E.

D. Kip, C. Anastassiou, E. Eugenevia, D. Christodoulides, and M. Segev, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CTuJ3.

Firth, W. J.

E. A. Ostrovskaya, Y. S. Kivshar, D. V. Skryabin, and W. J. Firth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 296 (1999).

Garcia-Ripoll, J. J.

J. J. Garcia-Ripoll, V. M. Perez-Garcia, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dipole mode vector solitons,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Garrett, M. H.

Giordmaine, J. A.

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332 (1999).

Haelterman, M.

Hewlett, S. J.

A. W. Snyder, S. J. Hewlett, and D. J. Mitchell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1012 (1994).

Joseph, R. I.

Kang, J. U.

In Kerr materials, and under special conditions, this can lead to Manakov solitons; see J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699 (1996).

Kip, D.

D. Kip, C. Anastassiou, E. Eugenevia, D. Christodoulides, and M. Segev, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CTuJ3.

Kivshar, Y. S.

Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1164 (2000) ; Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 25, 61 (2000) ; J. N. Malmberg, A. H. Carlsson, D. Anderson, M. Lisak, E. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 25, 643 (2000).

E. A. Ostrovskaya, Y. S. Kivshar, D. V. Skryabin, and W. J. Firth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 296 (1999).

A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, L. Poladian, and F. Landouceur, Opt. Lett. 16, 21 (1991); A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, and Y. S. Kivshar, Mod. Phys. Lett. B 9, 1479 (1995).

J. J. Garcia-Ripoll, V. M. Perez-Garcia, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dipole mode vector solitons,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Krolikowski, W.

W. Krolikowski, N. Akhmediev, and B. Luther-Davies, Phys. Rev. E 59, 4654 (1999).

Lan, S.

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332 (1999).

Landouceur, F.

Leach, P.

Lisak, M.

Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1164 (2000) ; Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 25, 61 (2000) ; J. N. Malmberg, A. H. Carlsson, D. Anderson, M. Lisak, E. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 25, 643 (2000).

Luther-Davies, B.

W. Krolikowski, N. Akhmediev, and B. Luther-Davies, Phys. Rev. E 59, 4654 (1999).

Malmberg, J. N.

Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1164 (2000) ; Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 25, 61 (2000) ; J. N. Malmberg, A. H. Carlsson, D. Anderson, M. Lisak, E. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 25, 643 (2000).

Martin, J.

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332 (1999).

Mitchell, D. J.

Mitchell, M.

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332 (1999).

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4657 (1998).

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091 (1997).

Musslimani, Z. H.

Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1164 (2000) ; Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 25, 61 (2000) ; J. N. Malmberg, A. H. Carlsson, D. Anderson, M. Lisak, E. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 25, 643 (2000).

Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1164 (2000) ; Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 25, 61 (2000) ; J. N. Malmberg, A. H. Carlsson, D. Anderson, M. Lisak, E. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 25, 643 (2000).

Ostrovskaya, E.

Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1164 (2000) ; Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 25, 61 (2000) ; J. N. Malmberg, A. H. Carlsson, D. Anderson, M. Lisak, E. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 25, 643 (2000).

Ostrovskaya, E. A.

E. A. Ostrovskaya, Y. S. Kivshar, D. V. Skryabin, and W. J. Firth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 296 (1999).

J. J. Garcia-Ripoll, V. M. Perez-Garcia, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dipole mode vector solitons,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Perez-Garcia, V. M.

J. J. Garcia-Ripoll, V. M. Perez-Garcia, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dipole mode vector solitons,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Poladian, L.

Salamo, G.

Segev, M.

Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1164 (2000) ; Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 25, 61 (2000) ; J. N. Malmberg, A. H. Carlsson, D. Anderson, M. Lisak, E. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 25, 643 (2000).

Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1164 (2000) ; Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 25, 61 (2000) ; J. N. Malmberg, A. H. Carlsson, D. Anderson, M. Lisak, E. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 25, 643 (2000).

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332 (1999).

For a recent review of optical spatial solitons, see G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4657 (1998).

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091 (1997).

D. N. Christodoulides, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, and M. Segev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1763 (1996).

In saturable nonlinearities (such as photorefractives), this gives Manakov-like solitons; see Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 21, 1436 (1996).

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995) ; M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995) ; M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994) ; D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. BJOBPDE 13, 706 (1996).

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994) ; D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. BJOBPDE 13, 706 (1996).

D. Kip, C. Anastassiou, E. Eugenevia, D. Christodoulides, and M. Segev, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CTuJ3.

Shalaby, M.

Sheppard, A. P.

Shih, M.

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332 (1999).

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091 (1997).

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995) ; M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995) ; M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994) ; D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. BJOBPDE 13, 706 (1996).

Singh, S. R.

D. N. Christodoulides, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, and M. Segev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1763 (1996).

Sipe, J. E.

Skryabin, D. V.

E. A. Ostrovskaya, Y. S. Kivshar, D. V. Skryabin, and W. J. Firth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 296 (1999).

Snyder, A. W.

Soljacic, M.

Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1164 (2000) ; Z. H. Musslimani, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 25, 61 (2000) ; J. N. Malmberg, A. H. Carlsson, D. Anderson, M. Lisak, E. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 25, 643 (2000).

Stegeman, G. I.

For a recent review of optical spatial solitons, see G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).

In Kerr materials, and under special conditions, this can lead to Manakov solitons; see J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699 (1996).

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, E. M. Wright, and G. I. Stegeman, Opt. Lett. 13, 871 (1988); M. Shalaby and A. J. Barthelemy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2736 (1992).

Steiglitz, K.

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332 (1999).

Tratnik, M. V.

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Science

For a recent review of optical spatial solitons, see G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).

Other

J. J. Garcia-Ripoll, V. M. Perez-Garcia, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dipole mode vector solitons,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. Kip, C. Anastassiou, E. Eugenevia, D. Christodoulides, and M. Segev, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CTuJ3.

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