Abstract

The combination of charge separation induced by the formation of a single photorefractive screening soliton and an applied external bias field in a paraelectric is shown to lead to a family of useful electro-optic guiding patterns and properties.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Segev and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Today 51(8), 42 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, M. Segev, G. Salamo, and A. Yariv, Riv. Nuovo Cimento 21, 1 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 24, 475 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Lan, M. Shih, G. Mizell, J. A. Giordmaine, Z. Chen, C. Anastassiou, J. Martin, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 24, 1145 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Clarendon, Oxford, 1996).
  7. K. Kos, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 23, 1001 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Klotz, H. Meng, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, and S. R. Montgomery, Opt. Lett. 24, 77 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, R. Della Pergola, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1954 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. For linear schemes based on screening, see A. Bekker, A. Ped’el, N. K. Berger, M. Horowitz, and B. FischerAppl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3121 (1998); Ph. Dittrich, G. Montemezzani, P. Bernasconi, and P. Gunter, Opt. Lett. 24, 1508 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Segev and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 22, 1299 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, M. Mitchell, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 23, 421 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. J. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, and A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 17, 713 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (5)

G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 24, 475 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Lan, M. Shih, G. Mizell, J. A. Giordmaine, Z. Chen, C. Anastassiou, J. Martin, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 24, 1145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Klotz, H. Meng, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, and S. R. Montgomery, Opt. Lett. 24, 77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, R. Della Pergola, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1954 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (6)

For linear schemes based on screening, see A. Bekker, A. Ped’el, N. K. Berger, M. Horowitz, and B. FischerAppl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3121 (1998); Ph. Dittrich, G. Montemezzani, P. Bernasconi, and P. Gunter, Opt. Lett. 24, 1508 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kos, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 23, 1001 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Today 51(8), 42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, M. Segev, G. Salamo, and A. Yariv, Riv. Nuovo Cimento 21, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, M. Mitchell, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 23, 421 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. Segev and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 22, 1299 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. J. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, and A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 17, 713 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agranat, A. J.

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, R. Della Pergola, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1954 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, M. Mitchell, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 23, 421 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 22, 1299 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, and A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 17, 713 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anastassiou, C.

S. Lan, M. Shih, G. Mizell, J. A. Giordmaine, Z. Chen, C. Anastassiou, J. Martin, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 24, 1145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bekker, A.

For linear schemes based on screening, see A. Bekker, A. Ped’el, N. K. Berger, M. Horowitz, and B. FischerAppl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3121 (1998); Ph. Dittrich, G. Montemezzani, P. Bernasconi, and P. Gunter, Opt. Lett. 24, 1508 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berger, N. K.

For linear schemes based on screening, see A. Bekker, A. Ped’el, N. K. Berger, M. Horowitz, and B. FischerAppl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3121 (1998); Ph. Dittrich, G. Montemezzani, P. Bernasconi, and P. Gunter, Opt. Lett. 24, 1508 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

S. Lan, M. Shih, G. Mizell, J. A. Giordmaine, Z. Chen, C. Anastassiou, J. Martin, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 24, 1145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 24, 475 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Crosignani, B.

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, M. Mitchell, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 23, 421 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, M. Segev, G. Salamo, and A. Yariv, Riv. Nuovo Cimento 21, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Della Pergola, R.

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, R. Della Pergola, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1954 (1999).
[CrossRef]

DelRe, E.

S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 24, 475 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, R. Della Pergola, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1954 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, M. Mitchell, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 23, 421 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Di Porto, P.

B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, M. Segev, G. Salamo, and A. Yariv, Riv. Nuovo Cimento 21, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feigelson, R. S.

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

For linear schemes based on screening, see A. Bekker, A. Ped’el, N. K. Berger, M. Horowitz, and B. FischerAppl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3121 (1998); Ph. Dittrich, G. Montemezzani, P. Bernasconi, and P. Gunter, Opt. Lett. 24, 1508 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Giordmaine, J. A.

S. Lan, M. Shih, G. Mizell, J. A. Giordmaine, Z. Chen, C. Anastassiou, J. Martin, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 24, 1145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grunnet-Jepsen, A.

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Clarendon, Oxford, 1996).

Hofmeister, R.

A. J. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, and A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 17, 713 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horowitz, M.

For linear schemes based on screening, see A. Bekker, A. Ped’el, N. K. Berger, M. Horowitz, and B. FischerAppl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3121 (1998); Ph. Dittrich, G. Montemezzani, P. Bernasconi, and P. Gunter, Opt. Lett. 24, 1508 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Klotz, M.

M. Klotz, H. Meng, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, and S. R. Montgomery, Opt. Lett. 24, 77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kos, K.

K. Kos, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 23, 1001 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lan, S.

S. Lan, M. Shih, G. Mizell, J. A. Giordmaine, Z. Chen, C. Anastassiou, J. Martin, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 24, 1145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 24, 475 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J.

S. Lan, M. Shih, G. Mizell, J. A. Giordmaine, Z. Chen, C. Anastassiou, J. Martin, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 24, 1145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meng, H.

M. Klotz, H. Meng, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, and S. R. Montgomery, Opt. Lett. 24, 77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, M.

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, M. Mitchell, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 23, 421 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mizell, G.

S. Lan, M. Shih, G. Mizell, J. A. Giordmaine, Z. Chen, C. Anastassiou, J. Martin, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 24, 1145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, S. R.

M. Klotz, H. Meng, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, and S. R. Montgomery, Opt. Lett. 24, 77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ped’el, A.

For linear schemes based on screening, see A. Bekker, A. Ped’el, N. K. Berger, M. Horowitz, and B. FischerAppl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3121 (1998); Ph. Dittrich, G. Montemezzani, P. Bernasconi, and P. Gunter, Opt. Lett. 24, 1508 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Refaeli, E.

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, M. Mitchell, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 23, 421 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G.

K. Kos, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 23, 1001 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, M. Segev, G. Salamo, and A. Yariv, Riv. Nuovo Cimento 21, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G. J.

M. Klotz, H. Meng, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, and S. R. Montgomery, Opt. Lett. 24, 77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

M. Klotz, H. Meng, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, and S. R. Montgomery, Opt. Lett. 24, 77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Lan, M. Shih, G. Mizell, J. A. Giordmaine, Z. Chen, C. Anastassiou, J. Martin, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 24, 1145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 24, 475 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, R. Della Pergola, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1954 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, M. Mitchell, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 23, 421 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Today 51(8), 42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, M. Segev, G. Salamo, and A. Yariv, Riv. Nuovo Cimento 21, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Kos, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 23, 1001 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 22, 1299 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M.

S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 24, 475 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Lan, M. Shih, G. Mizell, J. A. Giordmaine, Z. Chen, C. Anastassiou, J. Martin, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 24, 1145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Solymar, L.

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Clarendon, Oxford, 1996).

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Today 51(8), 42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tamburrini, M.

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, R. Della Pergola, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1954 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, M. Mitchell, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 23, 421 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Clarendon, Oxford, 1996).

Wilde, J. P.

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, M. Segev, G. Salamo, and A. Yariv, Riv. Nuovo Cimento 21, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, and A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 17, 713 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

For linear schemes based on screening, see A. Bekker, A. Ped’el, N. K. Berger, M. Horowitz, and B. FischerAppl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3121 (1998); Ph. Dittrich, G. Montemezzani, P. Bernasconi, and P. Gunter, Opt. Lett. 24, 1508 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

K. Kos, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 23, 1001 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Klotz, H. Meng, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, and S. R. Montgomery, Opt. Lett. 24, 77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 24, 475 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Lan, M. Shih, G. Mizell, J. A. Giordmaine, Z. Chen, C. Anastassiou, J. Martin, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 24, 1145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, and A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 17, 713 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 22, 1299 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, M. Mitchell, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 23, 421 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, R. Della Pergola, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1954 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (1)

M. Segev and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Today 51(8), 42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Riv. Nuovo Cimento (1)

B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, M. Segev, G. Salamo, and A. Yariv, Riv. Nuovo Cimento 21, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Clarendon, Oxford, 1996).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Predicted electro-optic index patterns resulting from the soliton-deposited space-charge field for (a) u0=2 and (b) u0=4.7.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Soliton formation: (a) intensity distribution of an 11µm beam before it enters the crystal; (b) 24µm diffracted intensity distribution at the output facet, after the beam has undergone linear propagation V=0 in the sample; (c) self-trapped output facet distribution for Vexp=1.33 kV at T=20 °C for u04.7.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output light distribution of the readout beam. For η=00.3 the beam is scattered. For η=0.45 a twin-beam structure forms, whereas for η=1 the original guiding pattern emerges.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electro-optic switching: (a) output light distribution of the read beam for η=0.45; (b) side-guided beam, when the crystal is shifted 10 µm in the negative x direction, launching the read beam in the direction of the top twin waveguide; (c) output in the same condition but η=0.8. The dashed lines indicate the position of the input beam axis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Predicted evolution of an 7µm beam: (a) top view of readout in an 8-mm sample for η=0.2 (beam deflection and diffraction), (b) one-beat directional coupling for η=0.4 from right hump to left hump, (c) mode beating for η=0.8 (2mm mode beat).

Equations (1)

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Δn=-Δn011+Ix/Ib-1+EextV/L2,

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