Abstract

An original femtosecond Cr4+:forsterite laser source associated with a nonlinear optical correlator was used for imaging through scattering media with 1220-nm light. The system, which operates as an ultrafast optical gate by sum-frequency generation in a nonlinear crystal, was able to detect the light reflected from a resolution chart hidden in a turbid medium, at an attenuation of as much as 15 mean free paths. When the object was illuminated with a collimated beam, real-time two-dimensional images were obtained, with a maximum transverse resolution of 20 µm.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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1998 (5)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

H. J. Van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. Van Marle, S. A. Prahl, and M. J. C. Van Gemert, Appl. Opt. 30, 4507 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. D. Kohn, and J. P. Zubelli, Science 24, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Alrubaiee, M.

Barry, N. P.

Bilinsky, I. P.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, I. P. Bilinsky, B. Golubovic, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, in Ultrafast Phenomena X, P. F. Barbara, J. G. Fujimoto, W. H. Knox, and W. Zinth, eds., Vol. 62 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer, New York, 1996), pp. 143–144.
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, I. P. Bilinsky, B. Golubovic, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, in Ultrafast Phenomena X, P. F. Barbara, J. G. Fujimoto, W. H. Knox, and W. Zinth, eds., Vol. 62 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer, New York, 1996), pp. 143–144.
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, I. P. Bilinsky, B. Golubovic, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, in Ultrafast Phenomena X, P. F. Barbara, J. G. Fujimoto, W. H. Knox, and W. Zinth, eds., Vol. 62 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer, New York, 1996), pp. 143–144.
[CrossRef]

Brakenhoff, G. J.

M. Müller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilsons, and G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 191, 266 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dainty, J. C.

Devaux, F.

Diels, J. C.

Evans, J. M.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

French, P. M. W.

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, I. P. Bilinsky, B. Golubovic, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, in Ultrafast Phenomena X, P. F. Barbara, J. G. Fujimoto, W. H. Knox, and W. Zinth, eds., Vol. 62 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer, New York, 1996), pp. 143–144.
[CrossRef]

Gayen, S. K.

Golubovic, B.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, I. P. Bilinsky, B. Golubovic, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, in Ultrafast Phenomena X, P. F. Barbara, J. G. Fujimoto, W. H. Knox, and W. Zinth, eds., Vol. 62 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer, New York, 1996), pp. 143–144.
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grunbaum, F. A.

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. D. Kohn, and J. P. Zubelli, Science 24, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyde, S. C. W.

Izatt, J. A.

Jones, R.

Jonusauskas, G.

Kohn, P. D.

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. D. Kohn, and J. P. Zubelli, Science 24, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, M. D.

Lantz, E.

Le Tolguenec, G.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S.

Marquez, G.

Moes, C. J. M.

Müller, M.

M. Müller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilsons, and G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 191, 266 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oberlé, J.

Prahl, S. A.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Rullière, C.

Scharwtz, J. A.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singer, J. R.

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. D. Kohn, and J. P. Zubelli, Science 24, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

M. Müller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilsons, and G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 191, 266 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, I. P. Bilinsky, B. Golubovic, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, in Ultrafast Phenomena X, P. F. Barbara, J. G. Fujimoto, W. H. Knox, and W. Zinth, eds., Vol. 62 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer, New York, 1996), pp. 143–144.
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, S. L.

Ung-arunyawee, R.

Van Gemert, M. J. C.

Van Marle, J.

Van Staveren, H. J.

Wang, L. V.

Wilsons, K. R.

M. Müller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilsons, and G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 191, 266 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yan, C.

Yazdanfar, S.

Zevallos, M. E.

Zubelli, J. P.

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. D. Kohn, and J. P. Zubelli, Science 24, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Microsc. (1)

M. Müller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilsons, and G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 191, 266 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (2)

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. D. Kohn, and J. P. Zubelli, Science 24, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, I. P. Bilinsky, B. Golubovic, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, in Ultrafast Phenomena X, P. F. Barbara, J. G. Fujimoto, W. H. Knox, and W. Zinth, eds., Vol. 62 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer, New York, 1996), pp. 143–144.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: Filter, IR low-pass filter; DL, delay line; λ/4’s quarter-wave plates; λ/2, half-wave plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time-gated images of the AFTP obtained for an optimum time delay (0 fs) between the reference and the probe pulses (a) in air and with the AFTP immersed in (b) 4 mm, (c) 7 mm, or (d) 10 mm of 1% Intralipid solution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-gated images of the chart hidden behind 0.4 mm of chicken muscle for different delay times: (a) 100 fs, (b) 0 fs, (c) 1 ps.

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