Abstract

Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, we have measured the index of refraction and the absorption coefficient of the organic ionic salt 4N,Ndimethylamino4Nmethyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST). This promising organic electro-optic material exhibits strong absorption and dispersion for frequencies above 1 THz at both room temperature and 83 K. No reduction in the absorption strength is observed when DAST is cooled, suggesting a single-phonon origin of the resonances. A simple vibration of the anion and cation of the salt is suggested as the origin of the exceptionally strong far-infrared absorption and the high-frequency electro-optic properties of DAST.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. R. Meredith, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials, D. J. Williams, ed., ACS Symp. Ser.233, 27 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, Science 245, 626 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Knoepfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, and P. Guenter, Nonlin. Opt. 9, 143 (1995).
  4. F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. U. Meier, M. Bosche, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. U. Gunter, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Pan, K. McCallion, and M. Chiappetta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 492 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, Chem. Phys. 245, 359 (1999).
  8. K. Kawase, M. Mizuno, S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, Y. Urata, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, and H. Ito, Opt. Lett. 15, 1065 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. J. Carrig, G. Rodriguez, T. S. Clement, and A. J. Taylor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 10 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. R. Grischkowsky, Ch. Fattinger, M. van Exter, and S. R. Keiding, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2007 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 595 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1976).
  14. F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Adv. Mater. 7, 592 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Gallot, J. Q. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (5)

F. Pan, K. McCallion, and M. Chiappetta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, Chem. Phys. 245, 359 (1999).

K. Kawase, M. Mizuno, S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, Y. Urata, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, and H. Ito, Opt. Lett. 15, 1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 595 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, J. Q. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

U. Meier, M. Bosche, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. U. Gunter, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Adv. Mater. 7, 592 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

T. J. Carrig, G. Rodriguez, T. S. Clement, and A. J. Taylor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Knoepfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, and P. Guenter, Nonlin. Opt. 9, 143 (1995).

1992 (1)

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

D. R. Grischkowsky, Ch. Fattinger, M. van Exter, and S. R. Keiding, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2007 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, Science 245, 626 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashcroft, N. W.

N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1976).

Boden, E. P.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bosche, M.

U. Meier, M. Bosche, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. U. Gunter, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, C.

U. Meier, M. Bosche, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. U. Gunter, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Adv. Mater. 7, 592 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, Ch.

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carrig, T. J.

T. J. Carrig, G. Rodriguez, T. S. Clement, and A. J. Taylor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chiappetta, M.

F. Pan, K. McCallion, and M. Chiappetta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clement, T. S.

T. J. Carrig, G. Rodriguez, T. S. Clement, and A. J. Taylor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ducret, R.

G. Knoepfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, and P. Guenter, Nonlin. Opt. 9, 143 (1995).

Fattinger, Ch.

D. R. Grischkowsky, Ch. Fattinger, M. van Exter, and S. R. Keiding, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2007 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Follonier, S.

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gallot, G.

G. Gallot, J. Q. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

G. Gallot, J. Q. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D. R.

D. R. Grischkowsky, Ch. Fattinger, M. van Exter, and S. R. Keiding, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2007 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Guenter, P.

G. Knoepfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, and P. Guenter, Nonlin. Opt. 9, 143 (1995).

Gunter, P.

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gunter, P. U.

U. Meier, M. Bosche, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. U. Gunter, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Adv. Mater. 7, 592 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 595 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

K. Kawase, M. Mizuno, S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, Y. Urata, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, and H. Ito, Opt. Lett. 15, 1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, Chem. Phys. 245, 359 (1999).

Jeon, T. I.

G. Gallot, J. Q. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

K. Kawase, M. Mizuno, S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, Y. Urata, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, and H. Ito, Opt. Lett. 15, 1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 595 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Grischkowsky, Ch. Fattinger, M. van Exter, and S. R. Keiding, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2007 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Knoepfle, G.

G. Knoepfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, and P. Guenter, Nonlin. Opt. 9, 143 (1995).

Knopfle, G.

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.-M.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X. F.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, Science 245, 626 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCallion, K.

F. Pan, K. McCallion, and M. Chiappetta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McGowan, R. W.

G. Gallot, J. Q. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meier, U.

U. Meier, M. Bosche, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. U. Gunter, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meredith, G. R.

G. R. Meredith, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials, D. J. Williams, ed., ACS Symp. Ser.233, 27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mermin, N. D.

N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1976).

Mizuno, M.

K. Kawase, M. Mizuno, S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, Y. Urata, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, and H. Ito, Opt. Lett. 15, 1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pan, F.

F. Pan, K. McCallion, and M. Chiappetta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Meier, M. Bosche, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. U. Gunter, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Adv. Mater. 7, 592 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, Science 245, 626 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phelps, P. D.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, G.

T. J. Carrig, G. Rodriguez, T. S. Clement, and A. J. Taylor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, W. P.

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, Science 245, 626 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schall, M.

M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 595 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schlesser, R.

G. Knoepfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, and P. Guenter, Nonlin. Opt. 9, 143 (1995).

Sohma, S.

S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, Chem. Phys. 245, 359 (1999).

K. Kawase, M. Mizuno, S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, Y. Urata, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, and H. Ito, Opt. Lett. 15, 1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Spreiter, R.

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, K. R.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

K. Kawase, M. Mizuno, S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, Y. Urata, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, and H. Ito, Opt. Lett. 15, 1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, Chem. Phys. 245, 359 (1999).

Taniuchi, T.

S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, Chem. Phys. 245, 359 (1999).

K. Kawase, M. Mizuno, S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, Y. Urata, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, and H. Ito, Opt. Lett. 15, 1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tashiro, H.

K. Kawase, M. Mizuno, S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, Y. Urata, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, and H. Ito, Opt. Lett. 15, 1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

T. J. Carrig, G. Rodriguez, T. S. Clement, and A. J. Taylor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Urata, Y.

K. Kawase, M. Mizuno, S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, Y. Urata, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, and H. Ito, Opt. Lett. 15, 1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

D. R. Grischkowsky, Ch. Fattinger, M. van Exter, and S. R. Keiding, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2007 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wada, S.

K. Kawase, M. Mizuno, S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, Y. Urata, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, and H. Ito, Opt. Lett. 15, 1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wong, M. S.

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Adv. Mater. 7, 592 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yakymyshyn, C. P.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Q.

G. Gallot, J. Q. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Adv. Mater. 7, 592 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

G. Gallot, J. Q. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, K. McCallion, and M. Chiappetta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Carrig, G. Rodriguez, T. S. Clement, and A. J. Taylor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, Chem. Phys. 245, 359 (1999).

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (1)

M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 595 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

U. Meier, M. Bosche, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. U. Gunter, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

D. R. Grischkowsky, Ch. Fattinger, M. van Exter, and S. R. Keiding, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2007 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nonlin. Opt. (1)

G. Knoepfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, and P. Guenter, Nonlin. Opt. 9, 143 (1995).

Opt. Lett. (1)

K. Kawase, M. Mizuno, S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, Y. Urata, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, and H. Ito, Opt. Lett. 15, 1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, Science 245, 626 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

G. R. Meredith, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials, D. J. Williams, ed., ACS Symp. Ser.233, 27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1976).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structure of DAST.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Index and absorption for DAST close to the 100/a direction. The dotted curves are calculated from a standard Lorentzian line shape.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Index and absorption for DAST along the 010/b direction.

Metrics