Abstract

We report experimental and theoretical studies of nonvolatile photorefractive holographic recording in LiNbO3:Cu:Ce crystals with two illumination schemes: (1) UV light for sensitization and a red interfering pattern for recording and (2) blue light for sensitization and a red pattern for recording. The results show that the oxidized LiNbO3:Cu:Ce crystals can provide high, persistent refractive-index modulation with weak light-induced scattering. The optimal working conditions and the prescription for doping and oxidation–reduction processing that yields the maximum refractive-index modulation are discussed.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Psaltis and F. Mok, Sci. Am. 273, 70 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Micheron and G. Bismuth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 79 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature 393, 665 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 24, 652 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. L. Staebler and W. Phillips, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 268 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Liu, L. Liu, C. Zhou, and L. Xu, Acta Opt. Sin. 19, 1437 (1999).
  8. Y. Liu, L. Liu, and C. Zhou, Opt. Lett. 25, 551 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3767 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, Proc. SPIE 3468, 20 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. O. Thiemann and O. F. Schirmer, Proc. SPIE 1088, 18 (1988).
  12. A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, Proc. SPIE 3137, 63 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Dischler, J. R. Herrington, A. Rauber, and H. Kurz, Solid State Commun. 14, 1233 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J 48, 2909 (1969).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 24, 652 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, L. Liu, C. Zhou, and L. Xu, Acta Opt. Sin. 19, 1437 (1999).

1998 (2)

A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, Proc. SPIE 3468, 20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, Proc. SPIE 3137, 63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. Psaltis and F. Mok, Sci. Am. 273, 70 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

O. Thiemann and O. F. Schirmer, Proc. SPIE 1088, 18 (1988).

1974 (2)

B. Dischler, J. R. Herrington, A. Rauber, and H. Kurz, Solid State Commun. 14, 1233 (1974).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Staebler and W. Phillips, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 268 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

F. Micheron and G. Bismuth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 79 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 24, 652 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, Proc. SPIE 3468, 20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, M. D.

A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, Proc. SPIE 3137, 63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Amodei, J. J.

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, P. P.

A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, Proc. SPIE 3137, 63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bismuth, G.

F. Micheron and G. Bismuth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 79 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Buse, K.

A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 24, 652 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, Proc. SPIE 3468, 20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, Proc. SPIE 3137, 63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Darwish, A.

A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, Proc. SPIE 3137, 63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dischler, B.

B. Dischler, J. R. Herrington, A. Rauber, and H. Kurz, Solid State Commun. 14, 1233 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Herrington, J. R.

B. Dischler, J. R. Herrington, A. Rauber, and H. Kurz, Solid State Commun. 14, 1233 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, T. D.

A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, Proc. SPIE 3137, 63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

B. Dischler, J. R. Herrington, A. Rauber, and H. Kurz, Solid State Commun. 14, 1233 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

Y. Liu, L. Liu, and C. Zhou, Opt. Lett. 25, 551 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, L. Liu, C. Zhou, and L. Xu, Acta Opt. Sin. 19, 1437 (1999).

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, L. Liu, and C. Zhou, Opt. Lett. 25, 551 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, L. Liu, C. Zhou, and L. Xu, Acta Opt. Sin. 19, 1437 (1999).

McMillen, D.

A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, Proc. SPIE 3137, 63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Micheron, F.

F. Micheron and G. Bismuth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 79 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Mok, F.

D. Psaltis and F. Mok, Sci. Am. 273, 70 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mortis, J.

A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, Proc. SPIE 3137, 63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, W.

D. L. Staebler and W. Phillips, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 268 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 24, 652 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, Proc. SPIE 3468, 20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis and F. Mok, Sci. Am. 273, 70 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rauber, A.

B. Dischler, J. R. Herrington, A. Rauber, and H. Kurz, Solid State Commun. 14, 1233 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Schirmer, O. F.

O. Thiemann and O. F. Schirmer, Proc. SPIE 1088, 18 (1988).

Staebler, D. L.

D. L. Staebler and W. Phillips, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 268 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Thiemann, O.

O. Thiemann and O. F. Schirmer, Proc. SPIE 1088, 18 (1988).

Venkateswarlu, P.

A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, Proc. SPIE 3137, 63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. C.

A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, Proc. SPIE 3137, 63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Willimas, A.

A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, Proc. SPIE 3137, 63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Y. Liu, L. Liu, C. Zhou, and L. Xu, Acta Opt. Sin. 19, 1437 (1999).

Zhou, C.

Y. Liu, L. Liu, and C. Zhou, Opt. Lett. 25, 551 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, L. Liu, C. Zhou, and L. Xu, Acta Opt. Sin. 19, 1437 (1999).

Acta Opt. Sin. (1)

Y. Liu, L. Liu, C. Zhou, and L. Xu, Acta Opt. Sin. 19, 1437 (1999).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

D. L. Staebler and W. Phillips, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 268 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971).
[CrossRef]

F. Micheron and G. Bismuth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 79 (1972).
[CrossRef]

A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (3)

A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, Proc. SPIE 3468, 20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Thiemann and O. F. Schirmer, Proc. SPIE 1088, 18 (1988).

A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, Proc. SPIE 3137, 63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Am. (1)

D. Psaltis and F. Mok, Sci. Am. 273, 70 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

B. Dischler, J. R. Herrington, A. Rauber, and H. Kurz, Solid State Commun. 14, 1233 (1974).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. An alternative to the UV source that was used is an expanded beam from an Ar+ laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Holographic recording and fixing characteristics of an oxidized LiNbO3:Cu:Ce with the UV-light–red-light scheme.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Holographic recording and fixing characteristics of an oxidized LiNbO3:Cu:Ce with the blue-light–red-light scheme.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependences of saturation and nonvolatile RIM’s Δn on the intensity ratio Ired/Iblue.

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