Abstract

It is shown that, under clear sky conditions, water-vapor mixing-ratio measurements by solar-blind Raman lidars can be improved if the differential transmissivity is calculated by use of a single Raman signal instead of the usual Raman differential absorption lidar method, which allows one to exploit the large absorption cross section of ozone in this spectral region. We present a discussion of statistical and systematic errors in both methods and show the results of a numerical simulation.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. H. Melfi and D. Whiteman, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 66, 1288 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. E. Eichinger, D. I. Cooper, F. L. Archuletta, D. Hof, D. B. Holtkamp, R. R. Karl, C. R. Quick, and J. Tiee, Appl. Opt. 33, 3923 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Cooney, K. Petri, and A. Salik, Appl. Opt. 24, 104 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Renaut, J. C. Pourny, and R. Capitini, Appl. Opt. 5, 233 (1980).
  5. Shardanand, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 525 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979), p. 36.
  7. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Standard Atmosphere (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1976), p. 26.

1994 (1)

1985 (2)

J. Cooney, K. Petri, and A. Salik, Appl. Opt. 24, 104 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Melfi and D. Whiteman, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 66, 1288 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

D. Renaut, J. C. Pourny, and R. Capitini, Appl. Opt. 5, 233 (1980).

1977 (1)

Shardanand, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 525 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Archuletta, F. L.

Capitini, R.

D. Renaut, J. C. Pourny, and R. Capitini, Appl. Opt. 5, 233 (1980).

Cooney, J.

Cooper, D. I.

Eichinger, W. E.

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979), p. 36.

Hof, D.

Holtkamp, D. B.

Karl, R. R.

Melfi, S. H.

S. H. Melfi and D. Whiteman, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 66, 1288 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Petri, K.

Pourny, J. C.

D. Renaut, J. C. Pourny, and R. Capitini, Appl. Opt. 5, 233 (1980).

Quick, C. R.

Renaut, D.

D. Renaut, J. C. Pourny, and R. Capitini, Appl. Opt. 5, 233 (1980).

Salik, A.

Shardanand,

Shardanand, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 525 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979), p. 36.

Tiee, J.

Whiteman, D.

S. H. Melfi and D. Whiteman, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 66, 1288 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

S. H. Melfi and D. Whiteman, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 66, 1288 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

Shardanand, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 525 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979), p. 36.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Standard Atmosphere (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1976), p. 26.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of the differential transmissivity qr retrieved from simulated signals by the Raman DIAL and the extinction techniques. The ozone concentration has been set to O3=1.0×1018 mol m-3; the aerosol extinction at the laser wavelength, to 0.3×10-3 m-1. The dotted curve is the theoretical differential transmissivity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Minimum height at which the total uncertainty on qEX is less than the statistical uncertainty on qDIAL as a function of the relative error in the aerosol extinction: (a) αaer=0.3×10-3 m-1, (b) αaer=1.5×10-3 m-1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of simulations obtained by 104 realizations of O2, N2, and H2O signals in clear sky conditions: (a) 1-standard-deviation limit of water-vapor mixing ratio obtained by (dotted curve) the Raman DIAL method and (solid curve) the extinction method; (b) average water-vapor mixing ratios obtained by (dotted curve) the Raman DIAL method and (solid curve) the extinction method.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Absorption and Backscattering Cross Sections at the Different Lidar Wavelengthsa

Equations (11)

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mr=KSH2OrSN2rqr,
qr=qO3rqRayrqaerr,
qrqrDIAL=σN2RN2σO2RO2SO2rSN2rγ,
Sxr=CσxRArr2ρxrexp-0rσx+O3rdr×exp-0rαx+rdr,
qO3=qO3 expΔσσN2+0rαN2+rdr,
qr=qrEX=qO3rqRayrqO2rqaerr,
qj=exp0rΔσσN2+αN2+,jdrqj=exp0rΔσσN2+αN2+,j-αN2j-αH2Ojdr.
qaer=exp0r0.26αLaerrdr,
ΔqqDIAL=γΔSN2SN2+ΔSO2SO2,  ΔqqEX=ΔσσN2+ΔSN2SN2,
Δq/qDIAL/Δq/qEX2γ/Δσ/σN2+30.
ΔqqEX=1-exp-0.260rΔαaerrdr×1+ΔSN2SN2Δα/σN2+.

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