Abstract

We report the demonstration of a pulsed atomic lead (Pb) vapor-based vacuum ultraviolet frequency converter from 233 to 186  nm with unity photon-conversion efficiency. This conversion is attained without phase matching.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Jain, H. Xia, G. Y. Yin, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4326 (1996)S. E. Harris, G. Y. Yin, M. Jain, H. Xia, and A. J. Merriam, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 355, 2291 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. D. Lukin, P. Hemmer, M. Loffler, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2675 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Hakuta, L. Marmet, and B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 596 (1991) see also L. Deng, W. R. Garrett, M. G. Payne, and D. Z. Lee, Opt. Lett. 21, 928 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Hemmer, D. Katz, J. Donoghue, M. Cronin-Golomb, M. Shahriar, and P. Kumar, Opt. Lett. 20, 982 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. E. Harris, Phys. Today 50(7), 36 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Jain, A. J. Merriam, A. Kasapi, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4385 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Xia, S. J. Sharpe, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 56, R3362 (1997)H. Xia, A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with spectator momenta,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Kasapi, M. Jain, and G. Y. Yin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 1999 (1996).
  10. A. J. Merriam and G. Y. Yin, Opt. Lett. 23, 1034 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. D. Lukin, P. Hemmer, M. Loffler, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Merriam and G. Y. Yin, Opt. Lett. 23, 1034 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. E. Harris, Phys. Today 50(7), 36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Xia, S. J. Sharpe, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 56, R3362 (1997)H. Xia, A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with spectator momenta,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, and G. Y. Yin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 1999 (1996).

M. Jain, H. Xia, G. Y. Yin, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4326 (1996)S. E. Harris, G. Y. Yin, M. Jain, H. Xia, and A. J. Merriam, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 355, 2291 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

P. Hemmer, D. Katz, J. Donoghue, M. Cronin-Golomb, M. Shahriar, and P. Kumar, Opt. Lett. 20, 982 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jain, A. J. Merriam, A. Kasapi, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4385 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

K. Hakuta, L. Marmet, and B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 596 (1991) see also L. Deng, W. R. Garrett, M. G. Payne, and D. Z. Lee, Opt. Lett. 21, 928 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

Donoghue, J.

Hakuta, K.

K. Hakuta, L. Marmet, and B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 596 (1991) see also L. Deng, W. R. Garrett, M. G. Payne, and D. Z. Lee, Opt. Lett. 21, 928 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

H. Xia, S. J. Sharpe, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 56, R3362 (1997)H. Xia, A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with spectator momenta,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, Phys. Today 50(7), 36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Jain, H. Xia, G. Y. Yin, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4326 (1996)S. E. Harris, G. Y. Yin, M. Jain, H. Xia, and A. J. Merriam, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 355, 2291 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jain, A. J. Merriam, A. Kasapi, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4385 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemmer, P.

M. D. Lukin, P. Hemmer, M. Loffler, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Hemmer, D. Katz, J. Donoghue, M. Cronin-Golomb, M. Shahriar, and P. Kumar, Opt. Lett. 20, 982 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jain, M.

M. Jain, H. Xia, G. Y. Yin, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4326 (1996)S. E. Harris, G. Y. Yin, M. Jain, H. Xia, and A. J. Merriam, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 355, 2291 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, and G. Y. Yin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 1999 (1996).

M. Jain, A. J. Merriam, A. Kasapi, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4385 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasapi, A.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, and G. Y. Yin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 1999 (1996).

M. Jain, A. J. Merriam, A. Kasapi, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4385 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, D.

Kumar, P.

Loffler, M.

M. D. Lukin, P. Hemmer, M. Loffler, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

M. D. Lukin, P. Hemmer, M. Loffler, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marmet, L.

K. Hakuta, L. Marmet, and B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 596 (1991) see also L. Deng, W. R. Garrett, M. G. Payne, and D. Z. Lee, Opt. Lett. 21, 928 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merriam, A. J.

A. J. Merriam and G. Y. Yin, Opt. Lett. 23, 1034 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Xia, S. J. Sharpe, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 56, R3362 (1997)H. Xia, A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with spectator momenta,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).
[CrossRef]

M. Jain, H. Xia, G. Y. Yin, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4326 (1996)S. E. Harris, G. Y. Yin, M. Jain, H. Xia, and A. J. Merriam, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 355, 2291 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jain, A. J. Merriam, A. Kasapi, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4385 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scully, M. O.

M. D. Lukin, P. Hemmer, M. Loffler, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shahriar, M.

Sharpe, S. J.

H. Xia, S. J. Sharpe, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 56, R3362 (1997)H. Xia, A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with spectator momenta,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Stoicheff, B. P.

K. Hakuta, L. Marmet, and B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 596 (1991) see also L. Deng, W. R. Garrett, M. G. Payne, and D. Z. Lee, Opt. Lett. 21, 928 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, H.

H. Xia, S. J. Sharpe, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 56, R3362 (1997)H. Xia, A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with spectator momenta,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).
[CrossRef]

M. Jain, H. Xia, G. Y. Yin, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4326 (1996)S. E. Harris, G. Y. Yin, M. Jain, H. Xia, and A. J. Merriam, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 355, 2291 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, G. Y.

A. J. Merriam and G. Y. Yin, Opt. Lett. 23, 1034 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, and G. Y. Yin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 1999 (1996).

M. Jain, H. Xia, G. Y. Yin, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4326 (1996)S. E. Harris, G. Y. Yin, M. Jain, H. Xia, and A. J. Merriam, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 355, 2291 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jain, A. J. Merriam, A. Kasapi, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4385 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, and G. Y. Yin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 1999 (1996).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H. Xia, S. J. Sharpe, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 56, R3362 (1997)H. Xia, A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe, and S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with spectator momenta,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jain, H. Xia, G. Y. Yin, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4326 (1996)S. E. Harris, G. Y. Yin, M. Jain, H. Xia, and A. J. Merriam, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 355, 2291 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin, P. Hemmer, M. Loffler, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Hakuta, L. Marmet, and B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 596 (1991) see also L. Deng, W. R. Garrett, M. G. Payne, and D. Z. Lee, Opt. Lett. 21, 928 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jain, A. J. Merriam, A. Kasapi, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4385 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

S. E. Harris, Phys. Today 50(7), 36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup and energy-level diagram for atomic Pb. Level assignments: |1, 6p2 P30 (ground); |2, 6p2 P32; |3, 6p7s P31; and |4, 6p9s P31. Hyperfine structure is not shown. The probe laser at 283  nm and coupling laser at 406  nm have opposite circular polarizations and prepare a large atomic coherence; the mixing field at 233  nm has the same-sense circular polarization as the coupling laser and mixes with the coherence to generate a sum frequency at 186  nm. BC1, BC2, beam combiners.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photon-conversion efficiency from the applied 233-nm mixing beam to the generated 186-nm beam as a function of the detuning Δω from the upper 6p9s P31 level. Inset: calculated conversion efficiency. The Pb metal density–length product for these data is 1.5×1017 atoms/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Saturation behavior and depletion in the 186-nm FWM process at a detuning of 40 cm-1 below the 6p9s P31 resonance. The generated 186-nm energy increases linearly with the applied 233-nm energy, indicating constant small-signal conversion efficiency (70%, as indicated by the solid line) and then saturates. Inset: recorded waveforms showing depletion of the 233-nm mixing field. (a) 233-nm mixing field at the exit of the heat pipe when the probe and the coupling lasers are blocked (no conversion). When significant generation occurs, the 233-nm field at the exit is depleted (b), and the 186-nm beam is generated (c). Trace (c) has been normalized and shifted from the other curves for better perspective.

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