Abstract

Single terrylene molecules embedded in microscopic p-terphenyl crystals are identified with the technique of fluorescence excitation spectroscopy. By use of the architecture of a scanning-probe microscope at T=1.4 K, a single molecule is scanned through an excitation laser beam while the fluorescence signal is recorded. In this manner we have mapped the intensity distribution in a one-dimensional optical standing wave, demonstrating the potential of a single molecule as a nanometric probe. We discuss future experiments aimed at combining the high spatial and spectral sensitivity of a single molecule.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Kummer, T. Basché, and C. Bräuchle, Chem. Phys. Lett. 229, 309 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Bingelli, G. Kotrotsios, R. Christoph, H. E. Hindermann, T. Berghaus, and P. Güthner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2888 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Kopelman and W. Tan, Science 262, 1382 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Henkel and V. Sandoghdar, Opt. Commun. 158, 250 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. M. van Oijen, J. Köhler, J. Schmidt, M. Müller, and G. J. Brakenhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 292, 183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Henkel and V. Sandoghdar, Opt. Commun. 158, 250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L. Fleury, A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 7933 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. K. Sekatskii and V. S. Letokhov, Appl. Phys. B 63, 525 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

S. Kummer, T. Basché, and C. Bräuchle, Chem. Phys. Lett. 229, 309 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. An, J. J. Childs, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kopelman and W. Tan, Science 262, 1382 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Thompson, G. Rempe, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1132 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

M. Bingelli, G. Kotrotsios, R. Christoph, H. E. Hindermann, T. Berghaus, and P. Güthner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2888 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Ambrose and W. E. Moerner, Nature (London) 349, 225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Orrit and J. Bernard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

W. E. Moerner and L. Kador, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2535 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ambrose, W. P.

W. P. Ambrose and W. E. Moerner, Nature (London) 349, 225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

An, K.

K. An, J. J. Childs, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basché, T.

S. Kummer, T. Basché, and C. Bräuchle, Chem. Phys. Lett. 229, 309 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and U. P. Wild, Single Molecule Optical Detection, Im-aging and Spectroscopy (VCH, Deerfield Beach, Fla., 1997).

Berghaus, T.

M. Bingelli, G. Kotrotsios, R. Christoph, H. E. Hindermann, T. Berghaus, and P. Güthner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2888 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, J.

M. Orrit and J. Bernard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bingelli, M.

M. Bingelli, G. Kotrotsios, R. Christoph, H. E. Hindermann, T. Berghaus, and P. Güthner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2888 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brakenhoff, G. J.

A. M. van Oijen, J. Köhler, J. Schmidt, M. Müller, and G. J. Brakenhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 292, 183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bräuchle, C.

S. Kummer, T. Basché, and C. Bräuchle, Chem. Phys. Lett. 229, 309 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chichester, R. J.

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Childs, J. J.

K. An, J. J. Childs, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christoph, R.

M. Bingelli, G. Kotrotsios, R. Christoph, H. E. Hindermann, T. Berghaus, and P. Güthner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2888 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

K. An, J. J. Childs, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dräbenstedt, A.

L. Fleury, A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 7933 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

K. An, J. J. Childs, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleury, L.

L. Fleury, A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 7933 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grober, R. D.

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, A.

L. Fleury, A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 7933 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Güthner, P.

M. Bingelli, G. Kotrotsios, R. Christoph, H. E. Hindermann, T. Berghaus, and P. Güthner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2888 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Henkel, C.

C. Henkel and V. Sandoghdar, Opt. Commun. 158, 250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hindermann, H. E.

M. Bingelli, G. Kotrotsios, R. Christoph, H. E. Hindermann, T. Berghaus, and P. Güthner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2888 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kador, L.

W. E. Moerner and L. Kador, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2535 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karrai, K.

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

R. J. Thompson, G. Rempe, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1132 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Köhler, J.

A. M. van Oijen, J. Köhler, J. Schmidt, M. Müller, and G. J. Brakenhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 292, 183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kopelman, R.

R. Kopelman and W. Tan, Science 262, 1382 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotrotsios, G.

M. Bingelli, G. Kotrotsios, R. Christoph, H. E. Hindermann, T. Berghaus, and P. Güthner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2888 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kummer, S.

S. Kummer, T. Basché, and C. Bräuchle, Chem. Phys. Lett. 229, 309 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

S. K. Sekatskii and V. S. Letokhov, Appl. Phys. B 63, 525 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Ambrose and W. E. Moerner, Nature (London) 349, 225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner and L. Kador, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2535 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

See, for example, T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and U. P. Wild, Single Molecule Optical Detection, Im-aging and Spectroscopy (VCH, Deerfield Beach, Fla., 1997).

Müller, M.

A. M. van Oijen, J. Köhler, J. Schmidt, M. Müller, and G. J. Brakenhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 292, 183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Orrit, M.

T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Orrit and J. Bernard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

See, for example, T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and U. P. Wild, Single Molecule Optical Detection, Im-aging and Spectroscopy (VCH, Deerfield Beach, Fla., 1997).

Rempe, G.

R. J. Thompson, G. Rempe, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1132 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandoghdar, V.

C. Henkel and V. Sandoghdar, Opt. Commun. 158, 250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, J.

A. M. van Oijen, J. Köhler, J. Schmidt, M. Müller, and G. J. Brakenhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 292, 183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sekatskii, S. K.

S. K. Sekatskii and V. S. Letokhov, Appl. Phys. B 63, 525 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Talon, H.

T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tan, W.

R. Kopelman and W. Tan, Science 262, 1382 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, R. J.

R. J. Thompson, G. Rempe, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1132 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Oijen, A. M.

A. M. van Oijen, J. Köhler, J. Schmidt, M. Müller, and G. J. Brakenhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 292, 183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

von Borczyskowski, C.

L. Fleury, A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 7933 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wild, U. P.

See, for example, T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and U. P. Wild, Single Molecule Optical Detection, Im-aging and Spectroscopy (VCH, Deerfield Beach, Fla., 1997).

Wrachtrup, J.

L. Fleury, A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 7933 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. K. Sekatskii and V. S. Letokhov, Appl. Phys. B 63, 525 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. M. van Oijen, J. Köhler, J. Schmidt, M. Müller, and G. J. Brakenhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 292, 183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Kummer, T. Basché, and C. Bräuchle, Chem. Phys. Lett. 229, 309 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

L. Fleury, A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 7933 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

W. P. Ambrose and W. E. Moerner, Nature (London) 349, 225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Henkel and V. Sandoghdar, Opt. Commun. 158, 250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. An, J. J. Childs, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Thompson, G. Rempe, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1132 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Moerner and L. Kador, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2535 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Orrit and J. Bernard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Bingelli, G. Kotrotsios, R. Christoph, H. E. Hindermann, T. Berghaus, and P. Güthner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2888 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kopelman and W. Tan, Science 262, 1382 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

See, for example, T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and U. P. Wild, Single Molecule Optical Detection, Im-aging and Spectroscopy (VCH, Deerfield Beach, Fla., 1997).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup: PD, photodector; BS, beam splitter. See text for other details. (b) Magnified view of the sample scanned through the standing wave (not to scale). The molecules are depicted as small dots in the crystal. The divergent beam after the focus is reflected by the aluminum mirror at the end of the fiber and undergoes partial interference with the incident beam. For simplicity the refraction of the laser beam at the crystal faces is not shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Bars, fluorescence signal when the molecule is scanned in the z direction (without the mirror in place). The slight asymmetry is due to an angle between the direction of travel of the molecule and that of the laser beam in the crystal. Solid curve, result of the fit (see text). (b) Bars, recorded fluorescence signal as the molecule is scanned along the z direction in the presence of the mirror; solid curve, fit assuming that the laser beam with the parameters found from the fit in (a) is reflected from a mirror (see text).

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