Abstract

The saturation properties of terahertz emission from biased, large-aperture photoconductors excited by trains of amplified femtosecond optical pulses are presented. A direct comparison is made of the multiple-pulse saturation properties of terahertz emission from semi-insulating GaAs and low-temperature-grown GaAs emitters with different carrier lifetimes. When the carrier lifetime is less than or comparable with the interpulse spacing, a significant enhancement of the narrow-band terahertz output is observed. The enhancement is not observed for emitters with long carrier lifetimes, consistent with the results of a previously derived saturation theory [Opt.  Lett.  18, 1340 (1993)].

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2647 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 137 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Liu, S.-G. Park, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 709 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Messner, M. Sailer, H. Kostner, and R. A. Hopfel, Appl. Phys. B 64, 619 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. W. Siders, J. L. W. Siders, A. J. Taylor, S.-G. Park, and A. M. Weiner, Appl. Opt. 37, 5302 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. J. Taylor, P. K. Benicewicz, and S. M. Young, Opt. Lett. 18, 1340 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. R. Melloch, D. D. Nolte, J. C. P. Change, D. B. Janes, and E. S. Harmon, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 21, 189 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. J. Taylor, G. Rodriguez, and D. I. Some, Opt. Lett. 22, 715 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (3)

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2647 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Messner, M. Sailer, H. Kostner, and R. A. Hopfel, Appl. Phys. B 64, 619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Taylor, G. Rodriguez, and D. I. Some, Opt. Lett. 22, 715 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

Y. Liu, S.-G. Park, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 709 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Melloch, D. D. Nolte, J. C. P. Change, D. B. Janes, and E. S. Harmon, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 21, 189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, S. R.

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2647 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Benicewicz, P. K.

Change, J. C. P.

M. R. Melloch, D. D. Nolte, J. C. P. Change, D. B. Janes, and E. S. Harmon, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 21, 189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cluff, J. A.

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2647 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Darrow, J. T.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Froberg, N. M.

A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Harmon, E. S.

M. R. Melloch, D. D. Nolte, J. C. P. Change, D. B. Janes, and E. S. Harmon, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 21, 189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hopfel, R. A.

C. Messner, M. Sailer, H. Kostner, and R. A. Hopfel, Appl. Phys. B 64, 619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huggard, P. G.

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2647 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Janes, D. B.

M. R. Melloch, D. D. Nolte, J. C. P. Change, D. B. Janes, and E. S. Harmon, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 21, 189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kostner, H.

C. Messner, M. Sailer, H. Kostner, and R. A. Hopfel, Appl. Phys. B 64, 619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2647 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, S.-G. Park, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 709 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Melloch, M. R.

M. R. Melloch, D. D. Nolte, J. C. P. Change, D. B. Janes, and E. S. Harmon, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 21, 189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Messner, C.

C. Messner, M. Sailer, H. Kostner, and R. A. Hopfel, Appl. Phys. B 64, 619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morse, J. D.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, D. D.

M. R. Melloch, D. D. Nolte, J. C. P. Change, D. B. Janes, and E. S. Harmon, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 21, 189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-G.

C. W. Siders, J. L. W. Siders, A. J. Taylor, S.-G. Park, and A. M. Weiner, Appl. Opt. 37, 5302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, S.-G. Park, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 709 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2647 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, G.

Sailer, M.

C. Messner, M. Sailer, H. Kostner, and R. A. Hopfel, Appl. Phys. B 64, 619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, C. J.

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2647 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Siders, C. W.

Siders, J. L. W.

Some, D. I.

Taylor, A. J.

Weiner, A. M.

C. W. Siders, J. L. W. Siders, A. J. Taylor, S.-G. Park, and A. M. Weiner, Appl. Opt. 37, 5302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, S.-G. Park, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 709 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weling, A. S.

A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Young, S. M.

Zhang, X.-C.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. Messner, M. Sailer, H. Kostner, and R. A. Hopfel, Appl. Phys. B 64, 619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2647 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (1)

M. R. Melloch, D. D. Nolte, J. C. P. Change, D. B. Janes, and E. S. Harmon, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 21, 189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Liu, S.-G. Park, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 709 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

THz waveforms measured from (a)–(c) SI-GaAs and (d)–(f) LT-GaAs (annealed at 600 °C) emitters for (a), (d) single-pulse excitation and for eight-pulse excitation in the (b), (e) low-, 20μJ/cm2, and (c), (f) high-, 500μJ/cm2, fluence regimes. The waveforms are indi-vidually normalized.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Power spectral density at the fundamental frequency of 0.3  THz versus total optical fluence for (a) LT-GaAs and (b) SI-GaAs emitters excited by a single pulse, a four-pulse train, and an eight-pulse train. Power spectral density versus total optical fluence and (c) single-pulse excitation and (d) eight-pulse excitation for a SI-GaAs emitter and three LT-GaAs emitters that yield carrier lifetimes 1/e at the highest fluences of <1, 2, and 3  ps following annealing at 575, 600, and 625 °C, respectively. For all curves at low fluences a slope of 2 is observed, indicating that the emission is unsaturated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Peak amplitude of the second emitted THz pulse versus interpulse separation for a SI-GaAs emitter and three LT-GaAs emitters annealed at the three temperatures indicated.

Equations (1)

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Et=Adσt/dt1+aσt-2,

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