Abstract

We show that homogeneous polymer blend microparticles can be prepared in situ from droplets of dilute solution of codissolved polymers. Provided that the droplet of solution is small enough <10 μm, solvent evaporation is rapid enough to inhibit phase separation. Thus the polymers that are being mixed need not be miscible, which greatly enhances the applicability of the technique. From analysis of two-dimensional Fraunhofer diffraction (angular scattering) patterns, we show that both the real and the imaginary parts of the refractive index can be tuned by adjustment of the relative weight fractions of polymers in solution.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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1998

R. A. Jenekhe and X. L. Chen, Science 279, 1903 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Kung, M. D. Barnes, N. Lermer, W. B. Whitten, and J. M. Ramsey, Anal. Chem. 70, 658 (1998);M. D. Barnes, N. Lermer, C.-Y. Kung, W. B. Whitten, and J. M. Ramsey, Opt. Lett. 22, 1265 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Kung, M. D. Barnes, K. Fukui, B. G. Sumpter, D. W. Noid, and J. U. Otaigbe, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 39, 610 (1998).

S. Holler, Y. Pan, R. K. Chang, J. R. Bottiger, S. C. Hill, and D. B. Hillis, Opt. Lett. 23, 1489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. D. Barnes, N. Lermer, W. B. Whitten, and J. M. Ramsey, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Yu, J. F. Douglas, E. K. Hobbie, S. Kim, and C. C. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Adachi, S. Hibino, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2, L827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Granstrom and O. Inganas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 147 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Abraham, A. Bharathi, and S. V. Subramanyam, Polymer 37, 5295 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Sung, A. Karim, J. F. Douglas, and C. C. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4368 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Marcus, D. M. Hussey, N. A. Diachun, and M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 103, 8189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991

Abraham, D.

D. Abraham, A. Bharathi, and S. V. Subramanyam, Polymer 37, 5295 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Acker, W. P.

Adachi, C.

C. Adachi, S. Hibino, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2, L827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Allen, T. M.

Barnes, M. D.

C.-Y. Kung, M. D. Barnes, K. Fukui, B. G. Sumpter, D. W. Noid, and J. U. Otaigbe, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 39, 610 (1998).

C.-Y. Kung, M. D. Barnes, N. Lermer, W. B. Whitten, and J. M. Ramsey, Anal. Chem. 70, 658 (1998);M. D. Barnes, N. Lermer, C.-Y. Kung, W. B. Whitten, and J. M. Ramsey, Opt. Lett. 22, 1265 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Barnes, N. Lermer, W. B. Whitten, and J. M. Ramsey, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bharathi, A.

D. Abraham, A. Bharathi, and S. V. Subramanyam, Polymer 37, 5295 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bottiger, J. R.

Chang, R. K.

Chen, G.

Chen, X. L.

R. A. Jenekhe and X. L. Chen, Science 279, 1903 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, E. J.

Diachun, N. A.

A. H. Marcus, D. M. Hussey, N. A. Diachun, and M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 103, 8189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Douglas, J. F.

J. W. Yu, J. F. Douglas, E. K. Hobbie, S. Kim, and C. C. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Sung, A. Karim, J. F. Douglas, and C. C. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4368 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fayer, M. D.

A. H. Marcus, D. M. Hussey, N. A. Diachun, and M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 103, 8189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, K.

C.-Y. Kung, M. D. Barnes, K. Fukui, B. G. Sumpter, D. W. Noid, and J. U. Otaigbe, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 39, 610 (1998).

Granstrom, M.

M. Granstrom and O. Inganas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 147 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Han, C. C.

J. W. Yu, J. F. Douglas, E. K. Hobbie, S. Kim, and C. C. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Sung, A. Karim, J. F. Douglas, and C. C. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4368 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hibino, S.

C. Adachi, S. Hibino, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2, L827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hill, S. C.

Hillis, D. B.

Hobbie, E. K.

J. W. Yu, J. F. Douglas, E. K. Hobbie, S. Kim, and C. C. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Holler, S.

Hussey, D. M.

A. H. Marcus, D. M. Hussey, N. A. Diachun, and M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 103, 8189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Inganas, O.

M. Granstrom and O. Inganas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 147 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jenekhe, R. A.

R. A. Jenekhe and X. L. Chen, Science 279, 1903 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karim, A.

L. Sung, A. Karim, J. F. Douglas, and C. C. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4368 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

J. W. Yu, J. F. Douglas, E. K. Hobbie, S. Kim, and C. C. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, T.

C. Adachi, S. Hibino, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2, L827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kung, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Kung, M. D. Barnes, N. Lermer, W. B. Whitten, and J. M. Ramsey, Anal. Chem. 70, 658 (1998);M. D. Barnes, N. Lermer, C.-Y. Kung, W. B. Whitten, and J. M. Ramsey, Opt. Lett. 22, 1265 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Kung, M. D. Barnes, K. Fukui, B. G. Sumpter, D. W. Noid, and J. U. Otaigbe, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 39, 610 (1998).

Lermer, N.

C.-Y. Kung, M. D. Barnes, N. Lermer, W. B. Whitten, and J. M. Ramsey, Anal. Chem. 70, 658 (1998);M. D. Barnes, N. Lermer, C.-Y. Kung, W. B. Whitten, and J. M. Ramsey, Opt. Lett. 22, 1265 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Barnes, N. Lermer, W. B. Whitten, and J. M. Ramsey, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marcus, A. H.

A. H. Marcus, D. M. Hussey, N. A. Diachun, and M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 103, 8189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Noid, D. W.

C.-Y. Kung, M. D. Barnes, K. Fukui, B. G. Sumpter, D. W. Noid, and J. U. Otaigbe, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 39, 610 (1998).

Otaigbe, J. U.

C.-Y. Kung, M. D. Barnes, K. Fukui, B. G. Sumpter, D. W. Noid, and J. U. Otaigbe, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 39, 610 (1998).

Pan, Y.

Ramsey, J. M.

C.-Y. Kung, M. D. Barnes, N. Lermer, W. B. Whitten, and J. M. Ramsey, Anal. Chem. 70, 658 (1998);M. D. Barnes, N. Lermer, C.-Y. Kung, W. B. Whitten, and J. M. Ramsey, Opt. Lett. 22, 1265 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Barnes, N. Lermer, W. B. Whitten, and J. M. Ramsey, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ray, A. K.

Souryi, A.

Sperling, L. H.

L. H. Sperling, Introduction to Physical Polymer Science (Wiley, New York, 1986), p. 131.

Subramanyam, S. V.

D. Abraham, A. Bharathi, and S. V. Subramanyam, Polymer 37, 5295 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sumpter, B. G.

C.-Y. Kung, M. D. Barnes, K. Fukui, B. G. Sumpter, D. W. Noid, and J. U. Otaigbe, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 39, 610 (1998).

Sung, L.

L. Sung, A. Karim, J. F. Douglas, and C. C. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4368 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taniguchi, Y.

C. Adachi, S. Hibino, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2, L827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Whitten, W. B.

C.-Y. Kung, M. D. Barnes, N. Lermer, W. B. Whitten, and J. M. Ramsey, Anal. Chem. 70, 658 (1998);M. D. Barnes, N. Lermer, C.-Y. Kung, W. B. Whitten, and J. M. Ramsey, Opt. Lett. 22, 1265 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Barnes, N. Lermer, W. B. Whitten, and J. M. Ramsey, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. W.

J. W. Yu, J. F. Douglas, E. K. Hobbie, S. Kim, and C. C. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

C.-Y. Kung, M. D. Barnes, N. Lermer, W. B. Whitten, and J. M. Ramsey, Anal. Chem. 70, 658 (1998);M. D. Barnes, N. Lermer, C.-Y. Kung, W. B. Whitten, and J. M. Ramsey, Opt. Lett. 22, 1265 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Granstrom and O. Inganas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 147 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

A. H. Marcus, D. M. Hussey, N. A. Diachun, and M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 103, 8189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

C. Adachi, S. Hibino, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2, L827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. Sung, A. Karim, J. F. Douglas, and C. C. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4368 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Yu, J. F. Douglas, E. K. Hobbie, S. Kim, and C. C. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem.

C.-Y. Kung, M. D. Barnes, K. Fukui, B. G. Sumpter, D. W. Noid, and J. U. Otaigbe, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 39, 610 (1998).

Polymer

D. Abraham, A. Bharathi, and S. V. Subramanyam, Polymer 37, 5295 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

M. D. Barnes, N. Lermer, W. B. Whitten, and J. M. Ramsey, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science

R. A. Jenekhe and X. L. Chen, Science 279, 1903 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

L. H. Sperling, Introduction to Physical Polymer Science (Wiley, New York, 1986), p. 131.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

2D Fraunhofer diffraction patterns from PEG particles produced in situ from 1% w/w aqueous solution. (A) pure PEG, (B) 0.5% w/w PMMA–PEG, and (C) 5% w/w PMMA–PEG.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

2D diffraction data for (A) pure PVC, (B) pure polystyrene, (C) 20:80 w/w PVC–PS MW=687 blend, and (D) 50:50 w/w PVC–PS MW=280,000 blend. For (C) and (D) the total polymer weight fraction in THF was 1%, and the initial droplet sizes were 910 μm. The particle size, d, and the refractive index (Re, Im) above each panel define the Mie theory fit (solid lines) to 1D slices (symbols) in the plot below each panel.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Observed 2D diffraction pattern for 50:50 w/w PVC–PS MW=280,000 blend produced from a 35μm droplet of 1% polymer–THF solution.

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