Abstract

We present a major improvement to the Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) imaging technique brought about by replacement of the commonly used step-scan spectrometer with a rapid-scanning spectrometer. This advancement dramatically decreases the time required for data collection without decreasing the data quality. With this new instrumental setup, an imaging data set consisting of 64×64 spectra with a 4cm-1 spectral resolution over a 1360cm-1 spectral range can be collected in 34 s. As a practical example, we demonstrate what we believe to be the first application of FTIR imaging to the screening of adsorbates on the elements of a combinatorial library containing different supported catalyst materials in the same reactant feed.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. J. Treado, I. W. Levin, and E. N. Lewis, Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 607 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. N. Lewis, P. J. Treado, R. C. Reeder, G. M. Story, A. E. Dowrey, C. Marcott, and I. W. Levin, Anal. Chem. 67, 3377 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. N. Lewis, A. M. Gorbach, C. Marcott, and I. W. Levin, Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 263 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. H. Kidder, V. F. Kalasinsky, J. L. Luke, I. W. Levin, and E. N. Lewis, Nature Med. (N.Y.) 3, 235 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S.-J. Oh and J. L. Koenig, Anal. Chem. 70, 1768 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Bhargava, S. Q. Wang, and J. L. Koenig, Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 32 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. M. Snively and J. L. Koenig, Appl. Spectrosc. 53, 170 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. R. Griffiths and J. A. De Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley, New York, 1986).
  9. R. K. Brandt, R. S. Sorbello, and R. G. Greenler, Surf. Sci. 271, 605 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Lauterbach, G. Bonilla, and T. D. Pletcher, Chem. Eng. Sci. 54, 4501 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Bonilla, T. D. Pletcher, G. Haas, and J. Lauterbach, React. Kinet. Catal. Lett. 65, 3 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. K. Brandt, M. R. Hughes, L. P. Bourget, K. Truszkowska, and R. G. Greenler, Surf. Sci. 286, 15 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. N. J. Persson and R. Ryberg, Phys. Rev. B 24, 6954 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Iwamoto and Y. Hoshino, Inorg. Chem. 35, 6918 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y.-Y. Huang, J. Catal. 30, 187 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Sarkany, J. Mol. Struct. 410, 137 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Sarkany, J. Mol. Struct. 410, 145 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. M. Snively and J. L. Koenig, J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Lett. 37, 2261 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. M. Snively and J. L. Koenig, Macromolecules 31, 3753 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Hadjiivanov, D. Klissurski, G. Ramis, and G. Busca, Appl. Catal. B 7, 251 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (3)

C. M. Snively and J. L. Koenig, Appl. Spectrosc. 53, 170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lauterbach, G. Bonilla, and T. D. Pletcher, Chem. Eng. Sci. 54, 4501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Snively and J. L. Koenig, J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Lett. 37, 2261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

C. M. Snively and J. L. Koenig, Macromolecules 31, 3753 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Bonilla, T. D. Pletcher, G. Haas, and J. Lauterbach, React. Kinet. Catal. Lett. 65, 3 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Oh and J. L. Koenig, Anal. Chem. 70, 1768 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bhargava, S. Q. Wang, and J. L. Koenig, Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

L. H. Kidder, V. F. Kalasinsky, J. L. Luke, I. W. Levin, and E. N. Lewis, Nature Med. (N.Y.) 3, 235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Sarkany, J. Mol. Struct. 410, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Sarkany, J. Mol. Struct. 410, 145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

M. Iwamoto and Y. Hoshino, Inorg. Chem. 35, 6918 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. N. Lewis, A. M. Gorbach, C. Marcott, and I. W. Levin, Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 263 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Hadjiivanov, D. Klissurski, G. Ramis, and G. Busca, Appl. Catal. B 7, 251 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

E. N. Lewis, P. J. Treado, R. C. Reeder, G. M. Story, A. E. Dowrey, C. Marcott, and I. W. Levin, Anal. Chem. 67, 3377 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

R. K. Brandt, M. R. Hughes, L. P. Bourget, K. Truszkowska, and R. G. Greenler, Surf. Sci. 286, 15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. K. Brandt, R. S. Sorbello, and R. G. Greenler, Surf. Sci. 271, 605 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

B. N. J. Persson and R. Ryberg, Phys. Rev. B 24, 6954 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Y.-Y. Huang, J. Catal. 30, 187 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Bhargava, R.

Bonilla, G.

J. Lauterbach, G. Bonilla, and T. D. Pletcher, Chem. Eng. Sci. 54, 4501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Bonilla, T. D. Pletcher, G. Haas, and J. Lauterbach, React. Kinet. Catal. Lett. 65, 3 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bourget, L. P.

R. K. Brandt, M. R. Hughes, L. P. Bourget, K. Truszkowska, and R. G. Greenler, Surf. Sci. 286, 15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, R. K.

R. K. Brandt, M. R. Hughes, L. P. Bourget, K. Truszkowska, and R. G. Greenler, Surf. Sci. 286, 15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Brandt, R. S. Sorbello, and R. G. Greenler, Surf. Sci. 271, 605 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Busca, G.

K. Hadjiivanov, D. Klissurski, G. Ramis, and G. Busca, Appl. Catal. B 7, 251 (1996).
[CrossRef]

De Haseth, J. A.

P. R. Griffiths and J. A. De Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Dowrey, A. E.

E. N. Lewis, P. J. Treado, R. C. Reeder, G. M. Story, A. E. Dowrey, C. Marcott, and I. W. Levin, Anal. Chem. 67, 3377 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorbach, A. M.

Greenler, R. G.

R. K. Brandt, M. R. Hughes, L. P. Bourget, K. Truszkowska, and R. G. Greenler, Surf. Sci. 286, 15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Brandt, R. S. Sorbello, and R. G. Greenler, Surf. Sci. 271, 605 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Griffiths, P. R.

P. R. Griffiths and J. A. De Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Haas, G.

G. Bonilla, T. D. Pletcher, G. Haas, and J. Lauterbach, React. Kinet. Catal. Lett. 65, 3 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hadjiivanov, K.

K. Hadjiivanov, D. Klissurski, G. Ramis, and G. Busca, Appl. Catal. B 7, 251 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hoshino, Y.

M. Iwamoto and Y. Hoshino, Inorg. Chem. 35, 6918 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.-Y.

Y.-Y. Huang, J. Catal. 30, 187 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, M. R.

R. K. Brandt, M. R. Hughes, L. P. Bourget, K. Truszkowska, and R. G. Greenler, Surf. Sci. 286, 15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Iwamoto, M.

M. Iwamoto and Y. Hoshino, Inorg. Chem. 35, 6918 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalasinsky, V. F.

L. H. Kidder, V. F. Kalasinsky, J. L. Luke, I. W. Levin, and E. N. Lewis, Nature Med. (N.Y.) 3, 235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kidder, L. H.

L. H. Kidder, V. F. Kalasinsky, J. L. Luke, I. W. Levin, and E. N. Lewis, Nature Med. (N.Y.) 3, 235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Klissurski, D.

K. Hadjiivanov, D. Klissurski, G. Ramis, and G. Busca, Appl. Catal. B 7, 251 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koenig, J. L.

C. M. Snively and J. L. Koenig, J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Lett. 37, 2261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Snively and J. L. Koenig, Appl. Spectrosc. 53, 170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Oh and J. L. Koenig, Anal. Chem. 70, 1768 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bhargava, S. Q. Wang, and J. L. Koenig, Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Snively and J. L. Koenig, Macromolecules 31, 3753 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lauterbach, J.

J. Lauterbach, G. Bonilla, and T. D. Pletcher, Chem. Eng. Sci. 54, 4501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Bonilla, T. D. Pletcher, G. Haas, and J. Lauterbach, React. Kinet. Catal. Lett. 65, 3 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Levin, I. W.

L. H. Kidder, V. F. Kalasinsky, J. L. Luke, I. W. Levin, and E. N. Lewis, Nature Med. (N.Y.) 3, 235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Lewis, A. M. Gorbach, C. Marcott, and I. W. Levin, Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 263 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Lewis, P. J. Treado, R. C. Reeder, G. M. Story, A. E. Dowrey, C. Marcott, and I. W. Levin, Anal. Chem. 67, 3377 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Treado, I. W. Levin, and E. N. Lewis, Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 607 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, E. N.

L. H. Kidder, V. F. Kalasinsky, J. L. Luke, I. W. Levin, and E. N. Lewis, Nature Med. (N.Y.) 3, 235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Lewis, A. M. Gorbach, C. Marcott, and I. W. Levin, Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 263 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Lewis, P. J. Treado, R. C. Reeder, G. M. Story, A. E. Dowrey, C. Marcott, and I. W. Levin, Anal. Chem. 67, 3377 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Treado, I. W. Levin, and E. N. Lewis, Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 607 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Luke, J. L.

L. H. Kidder, V. F. Kalasinsky, J. L. Luke, I. W. Levin, and E. N. Lewis, Nature Med. (N.Y.) 3, 235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marcott, C.

E. N. Lewis, A. M. Gorbach, C. Marcott, and I. W. Levin, Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 263 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Lewis, P. J. Treado, R. C. Reeder, G. M. Story, A. E. Dowrey, C. Marcott, and I. W. Levin, Anal. Chem. 67, 3377 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, S.-J.

S.-J. Oh and J. L. Koenig, Anal. Chem. 70, 1768 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Persson, B. N. J.

B. N. J. Persson and R. Ryberg, Phys. Rev. B 24, 6954 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pletcher, T. D.

J. Lauterbach, G. Bonilla, and T. D. Pletcher, Chem. Eng. Sci. 54, 4501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Bonilla, T. D. Pletcher, G. Haas, and J. Lauterbach, React. Kinet. Catal. Lett. 65, 3 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ramis, G.

K. Hadjiivanov, D. Klissurski, G. Ramis, and G. Busca, Appl. Catal. B 7, 251 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Reeder, R. C.

E. N. Lewis, P. J. Treado, R. C. Reeder, G. M. Story, A. E. Dowrey, C. Marcott, and I. W. Levin, Anal. Chem. 67, 3377 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryberg, R.

B. N. J. Persson and R. Ryberg, Phys. Rev. B 24, 6954 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sarkany, J.

J. Sarkany, J. Mol. Struct. 410, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Sarkany, J. Mol. Struct. 410, 145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Snively, C. M.

C. M. Snively and J. L. Koenig, J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Lett. 37, 2261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Snively and J. L. Koenig, Appl. Spectrosc. 53, 170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Snively and J. L. Koenig, Macromolecules 31, 3753 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sorbello, R. S.

R. K. Brandt, R. S. Sorbello, and R. G. Greenler, Surf. Sci. 271, 605 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Story, G. M.

E. N. Lewis, P. J. Treado, R. C. Reeder, G. M. Story, A. E. Dowrey, C. Marcott, and I. W. Levin, Anal. Chem. 67, 3377 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treado, P. J.

E. N. Lewis, P. J. Treado, R. C. Reeder, G. M. Story, A. E. Dowrey, C. Marcott, and I. W. Levin, Anal. Chem. 67, 3377 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Treado, I. W. Levin, and E. N. Lewis, Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 607 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Truszkowska, K.

R. K. Brandt, M. R. Hughes, L. P. Bourget, K. Truszkowska, and R. G. Greenler, Surf. Sci. 286, 15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. Q.

Anal. Chem. (2)

S.-J. Oh and J. L. Koenig, Anal. Chem. 70, 1768 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. N. Lewis, P. J. Treado, R. C. Reeder, G. M. Story, A. E. Dowrey, C. Marcott, and I. W. Levin, Anal. Chem. 67, 3377 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Catal. B (1)

K. Hadjiivanov, D. Klissurski, G. Ramis, and G. Busca, Appl. Catal. B 7, 251 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (4)

Chem. Eng. Sci. (1)

J. Lauterbach, G. Bonilla, and T. D. Pletcher, Chem. Eng. Sci. 54, 4501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Chem. (1)

M. Iwamoto and Y. Hoshino, Inorg. Chem. 35, 6918 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Catal. (1)

Y.-Y. Huang, J. Catal. 30, 187 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Struct. (2)

J. Sarkany, J. Mol. Struct. 410, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Sarkany, J. Mol. Struct. 410, 145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Lett. (1)

C. M. Snively and J. L. Koenig, J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Lett. 37, 2261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

C. M. Snively and J. L. Koenig, Macromolecules 31, 3753 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature Med. (N.Y.) (1)

L. H. Kidder, V. F. Kalasinsky, J. L. Luke, I. W. Levin, and E. N. Lewis, Nature Med. (N.Y.) 3, 235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

B. N. J. Persson and R. Ryberg, Phys. Rev. B 24, 6954 (1981).
[CrossRef]

React. Kinet. Catal. Lett. (1)

G. Bonilla, T. D. Pletcher, G. Haas, and J. Lauterbach, React. Kinet. Catal. Lett. 65, 3 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (2)

R. K. Brandt, M. R. Hughes, L. P. Bourget, K. Truszkowska, and R. G. Greenler, Surf. Sci. 286, 15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Brandt, R. S. Sorbello, and R. G. Greenler, Surf. Sci. 271, 605 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. R. Griffiths and J. A. De Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley, New York, 1986).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout of the FTIR imaging spectrometer. The light source is composed of a graybody infrared source (S), a KBr beam splitter (BS), a moving mirror (M1), and a stationary mirror (M2). The optical setup is composed of a bandpass filter (F), a KBr diffuser (D), CaF2 plano–convex lens (50 mm ϕ, 250 mm focal length) L1, reactor R, and a CaF2 biconvex lens (25 mm ϕ, 50 mm focal length) L2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectra of CO adsorbed on Pt/SiO2 at room temperature. The data were acquired in transmission mode from a single catalyst pellet with a conventional, nonimaging FTIR spectrometer (A) and the imaging spectrometer in rapid-scan mode (B) and step-scan mode (C). The spectral resolution is 4 cm-1 for (A) and (B) and 8 cm-1 for (C). For (A), 32 scans were averaged, and for (B) and (C) 16 spectra (pixels) from 1 scan were averaged.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Series of spectra of CO adsorbed on a Cu-ZSM5 catalyst pellet at three temperatures during heating. Each spectrum is from a single data set and is the average of the spectra from 16 pixels. The spectral resolution is 4 cm-1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image generated by plotting of the absorbance intensity of the CO stretching band at 2157 cm-1, corresponding to CO adsorbed on the zeolite pellets. The circles indicate the positions of the other members of the catalyst library, which show no IR absorption band at 2157 cm-1. Note that the noise around the edges of the image is due to inoperable pixels, a result of repeated thermal cycling of the FPA detector.

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