Abstract

We have constructed and demonstrated a high-performance optical phase-locked loop between two cw Nd:YAG lasers. The feedback system is relatively simple, employing only the laser’s internal piezoelectric transducer and an external acousto-optic modulator. A residual phase noise of the order of 1 µrad between two optical fields is achieved in the locked condition, as is verified by time- and frequency-domain analyses by the two-oscillator approach that is conventionally used in rf measurement. Potential applications to NASA space-based optical measurements are discussed.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. J. Snyder, T. Baer, L. Hollberg, and J. L. Hall, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981), p. 176.
  2. K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1399 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. P. Haugan, M. O. Scully, and K. Just, Phys. Lett. 77A, 88 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 293 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Mini-Circuit Model SRA-1.?Mention of this product’s name is for the sole purpose of technical communication.
  6. J. L. Hall and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 9, 502 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Ye, L.-S. Min, and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 6 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. L. Walls, A. J. D. Clements, C. M. Felton, M. A. Lombardi, and M. D. Vanek, in Characterization of Clocks and Oscillators, D. B. Sullivan, D. W. Allan, D. A. Howe, and F. L. Walls, eds., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Tech. Note1337, (1990), p. 129.
  9. D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L.-S. Min, and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1399 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1980 (1)

M. P. Haugan, M. O. Scully, and K. Just, Phys. Lett. 77A, 88 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Baer, T.

J. J. Snyder, T. Baer, L. Hollberg, and J. L. Hall, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981), p. 176.

Clements, A. J. D.

F. L. Walls, A. J. D. Clements, C. M. Felton, M. A. Lombardi, and M. D. Vanek, in Characterization of Clocks and Oscillators, D. B. Sullivan, D. W. Allan, D. A. Howe, and F. L. Walls, eds., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Tech. Note1337, (1990), p. 129.

Danzmann, K.

K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1399 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Felton, C. M.

F. L. Walls, A. J. D. Clements, C. M. Felton, M. A. Lombardi, and M. D. Vanek, in Characterization of Clocks and Oscillators, D. B. Sullivan, D. W. Allan, D. A. Howe, and F. L. Walls, eds., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Tech. Note1337, (1990), p. 129.

Hall, J. L.

J. Ye, L.-S. Min, and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 9, 502 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Snyder, T. Baer, L. Hollberg, and J. L. Hall, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981), p. 176.

Hänsch, T. W.

Haugan, M. P.

M. P. Haugan, M. O. Scully, and K. Just, Phys. Lett. 77A, 88 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

J. J. Snyder, T. Baer, L. Hollberg, and J. L. Hall, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981), p. 176.

Just, K.

M. P. Haugan, M. O. Scully, and K. Just, Phys. Lett. 77A, 88 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Knight, P. L.

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lombardi, M. A.

F. L. Walls, A. J. D. Clements, C. M. Felton, M. A. Lombardi, and M. D. Vanek, in Characterization of Clocks and Oscillators, D. B. Sullivan, D. W. Allan, D. A. Howe, and F. L. Walls, eds., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Tech. Note1337, (1990), p. 129.

Min, L.-S.

Paspalakis, E.

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

M. P. Haugan, M. O. Scully, and K. Just, Phys. Lett. 77A, 88 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, J. J.

J. J. Snyder, T. Baer, L. Hollberg, and J. L. Hall, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981), p. 176.

Vanek, M. D.

F. L. Walls, A. J. D. Clements, C. M. Felton, M. A. Lombardi, and M. D. Vanek, in Characterization of Clocks and Oscillators, D. B. Sullivan, D. W. Allan, D. A. Howe, and F. L. Walls, eds., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Tech. Note1337, (1990), p. 129.

Walls, F. L.

F. L. Walls, A. J. D. Clements, C. M. Felton, M. A. Lombardi, and M. D. Vanek, in Characterization of Clocks and Oscillators, D. B. Sullivan, D. W. Allan, D. A. Howe, and F. L. Walls, eds., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Tech. Note1337, (1990), p. 129.

Ye, J.

Class. Quantum Grav. (1)

K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1399 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. (1)

M. P. Haugan, M. O. Scully, and K. Just, Phys. Lett. 77A, 88 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. J. Snyder, T. Baer, L. Hollberg, and J. L. Hall, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981), p. 176.

Mini-Circuit Model SRA-1.?Mention of this product’s name is for the sole purpose of technical communication.

F. L. Walls, A. J. D. Clements, C. M. Felton, M. A. Lombardi, and M. D. Vanek, in Characterization of Clocks and Oscillators, D. B. Sullivan, D. W. Allan, D. A. Howe, and F. L. Walls, eds., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Tech. Note1337, (1990), p. 129.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup for the optical PLL between two Nd:YAG lasers. All rf reference oscillators share a common time base. (b) Filter transfer function of the PPL. Break points of the gain curve are indicated by frequency marks on the horizontal axis. A 6-dB/octave roll-off corresponds to a first-order integrator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fourier spectra of the optical heterodyne beat signal after it was downconverted to a 1-kHz carrier frequency. R.B’s, resolution bandwidths of the analyzer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frequency spectrum of the mixers’ output, indicating the phase-noise spectral density inside (lower solid curve) and outside (upper solid curve) the servo loop. The dotted curve is calibration of the noise floor for the mixer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time records of the phase measurement inside (a) and (b) outside the servo loop. Phase Allan variances are calculated from these time records.

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