Abstract

We investigate confocal enhanced optical coherence tomography as a nondestructive evaluation tool for imaging with improved image contrast and depth resolution through a highly scattering paint layer. The depth responses provided by confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, and confocal enhanced optical coherence tomography for imaging through paint are investigated. We demonstrate that a new combination of confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography provides significantly improved resolution and contrast for coherence gated imaging of substrate structures under the paint.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flottee, K. Gregoory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, Opt. Lett. 18, 950 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. F. D. Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. V. Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 934 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. Beaurepaire, A. C. Boccara, M. Lebec, L. Blanchot, and H. Saint-Jalmes, Opt. Lett. 23, 244 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Dubois, A. C. Boccara, and M. Lebec, Opt. Lett. 24, 309 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Beaurepaire, L. Moreaux, F. Amblard, and J. Mertz, Opt. Lett. 24, 969 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. G. Fujimoto, S. D. Silvestri, E. P. Ippen, C. A. Puliafito, R. Margolis, and A. Oseroff, Opt. Lett. 11, 150 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Denk, D. W. Piston, and W. W. Webb, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 445.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Kempe, W. Rudolph, and E. Welsch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 46 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. Wang, K. Kobayyashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. B. Amos, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 579.

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. D. Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. V. Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 934 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

M. Kempe, W. Rudolph, and E. Welsch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 46 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. Wang, K. Kobayyashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flottee, K. Gregoory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

Amblard, F.

Amos, W. B.

W. B. Amos, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 579.

Beaurepaire, E.

Blanchot, L.

Boccara, A. C.

Boer, J. F. D.

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flottee, K. Gregoory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, D. W. Piston, and W. W. Webb, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 445.
[CrossRef]

Dubois, A.

Flottee, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flottee, K. Gregoory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, Opt. Lett. 18, 950 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flottee, K. Gregoory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, S. D. Silvestri, E. P. Ippen, C. A. Puliafito, R. Margolis, and A. Oseroff, Opt. Lett. 11, 150 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gemert, M. J. C. V.

Gregoory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flottee, K. Gregoory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, Opt. Lett. 18, 950 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flottee, K. Gregoory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flottee, K. Gregoory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Izatt, J. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. Wang, K. Kobayyashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, Opt. Lett. 18, 950 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobson, J. M.

Kempe, M.

Kobayyashi, K.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. Wang, K. Kobayyashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, M. D.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. Wang, K. Kobayyashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lebec, M.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flottee, K. Gregoory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margolis, R.

Mertz, J.

Milner, T. E.

Moreaux, L.

Nelson, J. S.

Oseroff, A.

Piston, D. W.

W. Denk, D. W. Piston, and W. W. Webb, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 445.
[CrossRef]

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flottee, K. Gregoory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, S. D. Silvestri, E. P. Ippen, C. A. Puliafito, R. Margolis, and A. Oseroff, Opt. Lett. 11, 150 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, W.

Saint-Jalmes, H.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flottee, K. Gregoory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silvestri, S. D.

Sivak, M. V.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. Wang, K. Kobayyashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flottee, K. Gregoory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, Opt. Lett. 18, 950 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flottee, K. Gregoory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. Wang, K. Kobayyashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, D. W. Piston, and W. W. Webb, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 445.
[CrossRef]

Welsch, E.

Wilson, T.

T. Wilson, in Confocal Microscopy, T. Wilson, ed. (Academic, London, 1990), pp. 1–64.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. Wang, K. Kobayyashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Science (2)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flottee, K. Gregoory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

W. Denk, D. W. Piston, and W. W. Webb, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 445.
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson, in Confocal Microscopy, T. Wilson, ed. (Academic, London, 1990), pp. 1–64.
[CrossRef]

W. B. Amos, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 579.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical schematic of CEOCT: CP, chopper; HWP, half-wave plate; QWP, quarter-wave plate; DSC, dispersion compensator; M1, M2, mirrors; OL, objective lens; DP, delay prism; PM, phase modulator; SM, 50% beam splitter; CL, confocal lens; PH, pinhole; PR, photoreceiver; PS1, PS2, polarizing beam splitters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

On-axis response of (a) confocal microscopy with a 20× achromatic microscope objective (effective N.A., 0.22) and a pinhole of 10 optical unit size, (b) OCT, determined by SLD after dispersion balance between the reference and the sample arms, and (c) CEOCT, a product of (a) and (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of a gilded copper-wire mesh: (a) Image of a mesh upon glass in the pure confocal mode. (b) Image by OCT of a mesh embedded 10 MFP’s deep in paint. (c) Image by CEOCT of a mesh at the same area and depth in the paint. The graph at the right of each image is the corresponding line scan plot; the contrast of these images can easily be compared. From the line scan plots of (b) and (c) it is clear that CEOCT provides better image contrast than does OCT.

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