Abstract

We demonstrate that absorption coefficient μa and reduced scattering coefficient μs of a small turbid object can be measured to high accuracy with a frequency-domain immersion technique. For this technique the sample is immersed in a calibrated scattering medium and the optical properties are obtained from a differential measurement. Compared with conventional approaches, the immersion technique improves accuracy, minimizes variations owing to probe coupling and motion, reduces the effects of boundary conditions, and offers simple and rapid measurement once the immersion medium is calibrated. Accuracy tests of immersion-based measurements of μa and μs agree with reference values to within 3.6% and 2.6%, respectively. These tests are limited by the accuracy of the reference samples rather than by the accuracy of the immersion medium or the precision of the immersion approach. We demonstrate the in vivo capabilities of the technique through time-resolved measurements of μa and μs for a human hand during cuff occlusion on the upper arm.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. G. Fujimoto and M. S. Patterson, eds., Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, Vol. 21 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998).
  2. B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, and B. J. Tromberg, eds., Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue III (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1999).
  3. B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3457 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Gerken and G. W. Faris, Opt. Lett. 24, 930 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. Wu, L. Stinger, and G. W. Faris, Proc. SPIE 2979, 300 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, J. B. Fishkin, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, Appl. Opt. 33, 5204 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  13. S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Anal. Biochem. 227, 54 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. A. DeBlasi, M. Ferrari, A. Natali, G. Conti, A. Mega, and A. Gasparetto, J. Appl. Physiol. 76, 1388 (1994).
  15. A. T. Lovell, J. C. Hebden, J. C. Goldstone, and M. Cope, Proc. SPIE 3597, 175 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. X. Wu and G. W. Faris, Appl. Opt. 38, 4262 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999

1998

S. A. Walker, D. A. Boas, and E. Gratton, Appl. Opt. 37, 1935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

X. Wu, L. Stinger, and G. W. Faris, Proc. SPIE 2979, 300 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Anal. Biochem. 227, 54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Aronson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2532 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

R. A. DeBlasi, M. Ferrari, A. Natali, G. Conti, A. Mega, and A. Gasparetto, J. Appl. Physiol. 76, 1388 (1994).

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, J. B. Fishkin, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, Appl. Opt. 33, 5204 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

H. Liu, M. Miwa, B. Beauvoit, N. G. Wang, and B. Chance, Anal. Biochem. 213, 378 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aronson, R.

Barbieri, B.

Beauvoit, B.

H. Liu, M. Miwa, B. Beauvoit, N. G. Wang, and B. Chance, Anal. Biochem. 213, 378 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 479–481.

Chance, B.

B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, M. Miwa, B. Beauvoit, N. G. Wang, and B. Chance, Anal. Biochem. 213, 378 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conti, G.

R. A. DeBlasi, M. Ferrari, A. Natali, G. Conti, A. Mega, and A. Gasparetto, J. Appl. Physiol. 76, 1388 (1994).

Cooper, C. E.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Anal. Biochem. 227, 54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

A. T. Lovell, J. C. Hebden, J. C. Goldstone, and M. Cope, Proc. SPIE 3597, 175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Anal. Biochem. 227, 54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeBlasi, R. A.

R. A. DeBlasi, M. Ferrari, A. Natali, G. Conti, A. Mega, and A. Gasparetto, J. Appl. Physiol. 76, 1388 (1994).

Delpy, D. T.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Anal. Biochem. 227, 54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elwell, C. E.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Anal. Biochem. 227, 54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fantini, S.

Faris, G. W.

Ferrari, M.

R. A. DeBlasi, M. Ferrari, A. Natali, G. Conti, A. Mega, and A. Gasparetto, J. Appl. Physiol. 76, 1388 (1994).

Fishkin, J. B.

Franceschini, M. A.

Gasparetto, A.

R. A. DeBlasi, M. Ferrari, A. Natali, G. Conti, A. Mega, and A. Gasparetto, J. Appl. Physiol. 76, 1388 (1994).

Gerken, M.

Goldstone, J. C.

A. T. Lovell, J. C. Hebden, J. C. Goldstone, and M. Cope, Proc. SPIE 3597, 175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gratton, E.

Hebden, J. C.

A. T. Lovell, J. C. Hebden, J. C. Goldstone, and M. Cope, Proc. SPIE 3597, 175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 479–481.

Liu, H.

H. Liu, M. Miwa, B. Beauvoit, N. G. Wang, and B. Chance, Anal. Biochem. 213, 378 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lovell, A. T.

A. T. Lovell, J. C. Hebden, J. C. Goldstone, and M. Cope, Proc. SPIE 3597, 175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matcher, S. J.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Anal. Biochem. 227, 54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matheson, L. A.

L. A. Matheson and J. L. Saunderson, in Styrene, Its Polymers, Copolymers, and Derivatives, R. H. Boundy and R. F. Boyer, eds. (Reinhold, New York, 1952), pp. 517–573.

Mega, A.

R. A. DeBlasi, M. Ferrari, A. Natali, G. Conti, A. Mega, and A. Gasparetto, J. Appl. Physiol. 76, 1388 (1994).

Miwa, M.

H. Liu, M. Miwa, B. Beauvoit, N. G. Wang, and B. Chance, Anal. Biochem. 213, 378 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Natali, A.

R. A. DeBlasi, M. Ferrari, A. Natali, G. Conti, A. Mega, and A. Gasparetto, J. Appl. Physiol. 76, 1388 (1994).

Ramanujam, N.

B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saunderson, J. L.

L. A. Matheson and J. L. Saunderson, in Styrene, Its Polymers, Copolymers, and Derivatives, R. H. Boundy and R. F. Boyer, eds. (Reinhold, New York, 1952), pp. 517–573.

Stinger, L.

X. Wu, L. Stinger, and G. W. Faris, Proc. SPIE 2979, 300 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B.

B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tuchin, V. V.

V. V. Tuchin, S. R. Utz, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, in Medical Optical Tomography:?Functional Imaging and Monitoring, G. Müller, B. Chance, R. Alfano, S. Arridge, J. Beuthan, E. Gratton, M. Kaschke, B. Masters, S. Svanberg, and P. Van der Zee, eds. (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1993), pp. 234–258.

Utz, S. R.

V. V. Tuchin, S. R. Utz, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, in Medical Optical Tomography:?Functional Imaging and Monitoring, G. Müller, B. Chance, R. Alfano, S. Arridge, J. Beuthan, E. Gratton, M. Kaschke, B. Masters, S. Svanberg, and P. Van der Zee, eds. (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1993), pp. 234–258.

Walker, S. A.

Wang, N. G.

H. Liu, M. Miwa, B. Beauvoit, N. G. Wang, and B. Chance, Anal. Biochem. 213, 378 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

X. Wu and G. W. Faris, Appl. Opt. 38, 4262 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Wu, L. Stinger, and G. W. Faris, Proc. SPIE 2979, 300 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yaroslavsky, I. V.

V. V. Tuchin, S. R. Utz, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, in Medical Optical Tomography:?Functional Imaging and Monitoring, G. Müller, B. Chance, R. Alfano, S. Arridge, J. Beuthan, E. Gratton, M. Kaschke, B. Masters, S. Svanberg, and P. Van der Zee, eds. (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1993), pp. 234–258.

Anal. Biochem.

H. Liu, M. Miwa, B. Beauvoit, N. G. Wang, and B. Chance, Anal. Biochem. 213, 378 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Anal. Biochem. 227, 54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

J. Appl. Physiol.

R. A. DeBlasi, M. Ferrari, A. Natali, G. Conti, A. Mega, and A. Gasparetto, J. Appl. Physiol. 76, 1388 (1994).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

A. T. Lovell, J. C. Hebden, J. C. Goldstone, and M. Cope, Proc. SPIE 3597, 175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Wu, L. Stinger, and G. W. Faris, Proc. SPIE 2979, 300 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. G. Fujimoto and M. S. Patterson, eds., Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, Vol. 21 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998).

B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, and B. J. Tromberg, eds., Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue III (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1999).

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 479–481.

L. A. Matheson and J. L. Saunderson, in Styrene, Its Polymers, Copolymers, and Derivatives, R. H. Boundy and R. F. Boyer, eds. (Reinhold, New York, 1952), pp. 517–573.

V. V. Tuchin, S. R. Utz, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, in Medical Optical Tomography:?Functional Imaging and Monitoring, G. Müller, B. Chance, R. Alfano, S. Arridge, J. Beuthan, E. Gratton, M. Kaschke, B. Masters, S. Svanberg, and P. Van der Zee, eds. (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1993), pp. 234–258.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of modified amplitudes κdc and κrf and phase ϕ of a photon density wave in a turbid medium with (solid lines) and without (dashed lines) an immersed object of thickness d.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption coefficient μa (squares) and reduced scattering coefficient μs (circles) of a 55-mL liquid sample as a function of added dye concentration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-resolved immersion measurements of absorption coefficient μa and reduced scattering coefficient μs of a human hand during cuff occlusion on the upper arm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Reduced Scattering Coefficient μs Calculated with Mie Theory and Measured with the Immersion Technique

Equations (1)

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κdc,obj=κdc,med+Δκdc/d,κrf,obj=κrf,med+Δκrf/d,ϕobj=ϕmed+Δϕ/d.

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