Abstract

The influence of a focused polarized Gaussian beam on image formation was studied. We show that the position of the tip with reference to the center of the beam involves asymmetry in the intensity map. A comparison between s and p polarization can be made, owing to the definition of both a three-dimensional polarized Gaussian beam and a three-dimensional object. This result implies that the best way to scan a sample consists in moving it and not the tip; moreover, focusing the incident light to get a higher signal-to-noise ratio must be done carefully with respect to the sample period.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Girard and A. Dereux, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J.-J. Greffet and R. Carminati, Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Van Labeke and D. Barchiesi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2193 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  7. S. Davy, D. Barchiesi, M. Spajer, and D. Courjon, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 277 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Van Labeke and D. Barchiesi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 732 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Barchiesi, Opt. Commun. 126, 7 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Van Labeke, F. Baida, and J.-M. Vigoureux, Ultramicroscopy 71, 351 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, and J. M. Vigoureux, Phys. Rev. B 60, 7812 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Courjon, F. Baida, C. Bainier, D. Van Labeke, and D. Barchiesi, in Photons and Local Probes, O. Marti and R. Möller, eds., Vol. 300 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 59–78.
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Baida, D. Courjon, and G. Tribillon, in Near Field Optics, D. W. Pohl and D. Courjon, eds., Vol. 242 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 71–78.
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. P. Fillard, M. Castagné, C. Prioleau, E. Baudry, P. Gall, and J. Bonnafé, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 28, 493 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Baida, D. Courjon, and H. Bielefeldt, Appl. Opt. 37, 1808 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, and R. Bachelot, Ultramicroscopy 57, 318 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Wioland, O. Bergossi, S. Hudlet, K. Mackay, and P. Royer, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 289 (1999).

1999 (4)

S. Davy, D. Barchiesi, M. Spajer, and D. Courjon, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 277 (1999).

A. Vial, D. Barchiesi, and G. Parent, J. Microsc. 194, 265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, and J. M. Vigoureux, Phys. Rev. B 60, 7812 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Wioland, O. Bergossi, S. Hudlet, K. Mackay, and P. Royer, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 289 (1999).

1998 (4)

F. Baida, D. Courjon, and H. Bielefeldt, Appl. Opt. 37, 1808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, F. Baida, and J.-M. Vigoureux, Ultramicroscopy 71, 351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. Greffet and R. Carminati, Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133 (1998).

A. Castiaux, C. Girard, M. Spajer, and S. Davy, Ultramicroscopy 71, 49 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

D. Barchiesi, Opt. Commun. 126, 7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard and A. Dereux, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

R. Carminati and J.-J. Greffet, Opt. Commun. 116, 316 (1995); erratum,  120, 371 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, and R. Bachelot, Ultramicroscopy 57, 318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. P. Fillard, M. Castagné, C. Prioleau, E. Baudry, P. Gall, and J. Bonnafé, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 28, 493 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

Bachelot, R.

P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, and R. Bachelot, Ultramicroscopy 57, 318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F.

D. Van Labeke, F. Baida, and J.-M. Vigoureux, Ultramicroscopy 71, 351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Baida, D. Courjon, and H. Bielefeldt, Appl. Opt. 37, 1808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Baida, D. Courjon, and G. Tribillon, in Near Field Optics, D. W. Pohl and D. Courjon, eds., Vol. 242 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 71–78.
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon, F. Baida, C. Bainier, D. Van Labeke, and D. Barchiesi, in Photons and Local Probes, O. Marti and R. Möller, eds., Vol. 300 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 59–78.
[CrossRef]

Baida, F. I.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, and J. M. Vigoureux, Phys. Rev. B 60, 7812 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bainier, C.

D. Courjon, F. Baida, C. Bainier, D. Van Labeke, and D. Barchiesi, in Photons and Local Probes, O. Marti and R. Möller, eds., Vol. 300 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 59–78.
[CrossRef]

Barchiesi, D.

S. Davy, D. Barchiesi, M. Spajer, and D. Courjon, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 277 (1999).

A. Vial, D. Barchiesi, and G. Parent, J. Microsc. 194, 265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Barchiesi, Opt. Commun. 126, 7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke and D. Barchiesi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke and D. Barchiesi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 732 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon, F. Baida, C. Bainier, D. Van Labeke, and D. Barchiesi, in Photons and Local Probes, O. Marti and R. Möller, eds., Vol. 300 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 59–78.
[CrossRef]

Baudry, E.

J. P. Fillard, M. Castagné, C. Prioleau, E. Baudry, P. Gall, and J. Bonnafé, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 28, 493 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bergossi, O.

H. Wioland, O. Bergossi, S. Hudlet, K. Mackay, and P. Royer, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 289 (1999).

Bielefeldt, H.

Boccara, A. C.

P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, and R. Bachelot, Ultramicroscopy 57, 318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bonnafé, J.

J. P. Fillard, M. Castagné, C. Prioleau, E. Baudry, P. Gall, and J. Bonnafé, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 28, 493 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, R.

J.-J. Greffet and R. Carminati, Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133 (1998).

R. Carminati and J.-J. Greffet, Opt. Commun. 116, 316 (1995); erratum,  120, 371 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Castagné, M.

J. P. Fillard, M. Castagné, C. Prioleau, E. Baudry, P. Gall, and J. Bonnafé, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 28, 493 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Castiaux, A.

A. Castiaux, C. Girard, M. Spajer, and S. Davy, Ultramicroscopy 71, 49 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

S. Davy, D. Barchiesi, M. Spajer, and D. Courjon, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 277 (1999).

F. Baida, D. Courjon, and H. Bielefeldt, Appl. Opt. 37, 1808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Baida, D. Courjon, and G. Tribillon, in Near Field Optics, D. W. Pohl and D. Courjon, eds., Vol. 242 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 71–78.
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon, F. Baida, C. Bainier, D. Van Labeke, and D. Barchiesi, in Photons and Local Probes, O. Marti and R. Möller, eds., Vol. 300 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 59–78.
[CrossRef]

Davy, S.

S. Davy, D. Barchiesi, M. Spajer, and D. Courjon, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 277 (1999).

A. Castiaux, C. Girard, M. Spajer, and S. Davy, Ultramicroscopy 71, 49 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

C. Girard and A. Dereux, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fillard, J. P.

J. P. Fillard, M. Castagné, C. Prioleau, E. Baudry, P. Gall, and J. Bonnafé, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 28, 493 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gall, P.

J. P. Fillard, M. Castagné, C. Prioleau, E. Baudry, P. Gall, and J. Bonnafé, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 28, 493 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

A. Castiaux, C. Girard, M. Spajer, and S. Davy, Ultramicroscopy 71, 49 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard and A. Dereux, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gleyzes, P.

P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, and R. Bachelot, Ultramicroscopy 57, 318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Greffet, J.-J.

J.-J. Greffet and R. Carminati, Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133 (1998).

R. Carminati and J.-J. Greffet, Opt. Commun. 116, 316 (1995); erratum,  120, 371 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hudlet, S.

H. Wioland, O. Bergossi, S. Hudlet, K. Mackay, and P. Royer, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 289 (1999).

Mackay, K.

H. Wioland, O. Bergossi, S. Hudlet, K. Mackay, and P. Royer, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 289 (1999).

Madrazo, A.

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

Parent, G.

A. Vial, D. Barchiesi, and G. Parent, J. Microsc. 194, 265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prioleau, C.

J. P. Fillard, M. Castagné, C. Prioleau, E. Baudry, P. Gall, and J. Bonnafé, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 28, 493 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Royer, P.

H. Wioland, O. Bergossi, S. Hudlet, K. Mackay, and P. Royer, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 289 (1999).

Spajer, M.

S. Davy, D. Barchiesi, M. Spajer, and D. Courjon, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 277 (1999).

A. Castiaux, C. Girard, M. Spajer, and S. Davy, Ultramicroscopy 71, 49 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tribillon, G.

F. Baida, D. Courjon, and G. Tribillon, in Near Field Optics, D. W. Pohl and D. Courjon, eds., Vol. 242 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 71–78.
[CrossRef]

Van Labeke, D.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, and J. M. Vigoureux, Phys. Rev. B 60, 7812 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, F. Baida, and J.-M. Vigoureux, Ultramicroscopy 71, 351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke and D. Barchiesi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke and D. Barchiesi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 732 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon, F. Baida, C. Bainier, D. Van Labeke, and D. Barchiesi, in Photons and Local Probes, O. Marti and R. Möller, eds., Vol. 300 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 59–78.
[CrossRef]

Vial, A.

A. Vial, D. Barchiesi, and G. Parent, J. Microsc. 194, 265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vigoureux, J. M.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, and J. M. Vigoureux, Phys. Rev. B 60, 7812 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vigoureux, J.-M.

D. Van Labeke, F. Baida, and J.-M. Vigoureux, Ultramicroscopy 71, 351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wioland, H.

H. Wioland, O. Bergossi, S. Hudlet, K. Mackay, and P. Royer, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 289 (1999).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Davy, D. Barchiesi, M. Spajer, and D. Courjon, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 277 (1999).

H. Wioland, O. Bergossi, S. Hudlet, K. Mackay, and P. Royer, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 289 (1999).

J. Microsc. (1)

A. Vial, D. Barchiesi, and G. Parent, J. Microsc. 194, 265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

J. P. Fillard, M. Castagné, C. Prioleau, E. Baudry, P. Gall, and J. Bonnafé, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 28, 493 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

D. Barchiesi, Opt. Commun. 126, 7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati and J.-J. Greffet, Opt. Commun. 116, 316 (1995); erratum,  120, 371 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, and J. M. Vigoureux, Phys. Rev. B 60, 7812 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Surf. Sci. (1)

J.-J. Greffet and R. Carminati, Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133 (1998).

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

C. Girard and A. Dereux, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (3)

A. Castiaux, C. Girard, M. Spajer, and S. Davy, Ultramicroscopy 71, 49 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, F. Baida, and J.-M. Vigoureux, Ultramicroscopy 71, 351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, and R. Bachelot, Ultramicroscopy 57, 318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. Courjon, F. Baida, C. Bainier, D. Van Labeke, and D. Barchiesi, in Photons and Local Probes, O. Marti and R. Möller, eds., Vol. 300 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 59–78.
[CrossRef]

F. Baida, D. Courjon, and G. Tribillon, in Near Field Optics, D. W. Pohl and D. Courjon, eds., Vol. 242 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 71–78.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for a STOM with illumination from a 3D polarized Gaussian beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top view with contour plots of the object under study (squares) and of the incident Gaussian beam (dashed curves). A, center of the beam. B is out of the mean plane of incidence and corresponds to the position of the tip used in Fig. 5 below.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated STOM images in gray level. (a), (b) Plane-wave illumination with s and p polarization, respectively. (c), (d) Calculated for s and p polarization but with a 3D Gaussian beam. In (c) and (d) the tip is above the center of the Gaussian beam. The scanned area is 1.2 µm by 1.2 µm. The mean direction of the incident beam, in all cases, is given by k//, which is the projection of the beam axis on the xy plane (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross sections made on the maps of Fig. 3 along directions 1–4. Each curve is labeled with reference to Figs. 3(a)3(d) and with the cross-section number. The right-hand column corresponds to p polarization; the left, to s polarization. Solid curves, Gaussian incident beams; dashed curves, plane waves.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Gray-level and contour plots in (a) s and (b) p polarization, showing clearly the asymmetry that is due to the property of the Gaussian beam and to the position of the tip (point B in Fig. 2), especially in the p case (arrows on the contour plots). The mean direction of the incident beam is given by k//, which is the projection of the beam axis on the xy plane.

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