Abstract

We have demonstrated nondestructive detection of cold atoms with a probe laser by a frequency-modulation spectroscopy technique. We were able to tune the probe laser and its sidebands far from atomic resonance to reduce the spontaneous emission to less than 0.2 photon per atom during detection.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. R. Andrews, M.-O. Mewes, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Science 273, 84 (1996).C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 985 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. G. Aminoff, A. M. Steane, P. Bouyer, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3083 (1993).C. V. Saba, P. A. Barton, M. G. Boshier, I. G. Hughes, P. Rosenbusch, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 468 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Berman, ed., Atom Interferometry (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997).
  4. J.-Y. Courtois, J.-M. Courty, and S. Reynaud, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1507 (1995); A. Aspect, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, P. Vignolo, and C. I. Westbrook, Phys. Rev. A 52, 4704 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. L. Rolston and W. D. Phillips, “Imaging Bose–Einstein condensates:?How destructive is nondestructive imaging?” submitted to Phys. Rev. A.
  6. G. C. Bjorklund, Opt. Lett. 5, 15 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. A. Silver, Appl. Opt. 31, 707 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Landragin, G. Labeyrie, C. Henkel, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, Opt. Lett. 21, 1595 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1996

M. R. Andrews, M.-O. Mewes, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Science 273, 84 (1996).C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 985 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Landragin, G. Labeyrie, C. Henkel, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, Opt. Lett. 21, 1595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J.-Y. Courtois, J.-M. Courty, and S. Reynaud, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1507 (1995); A. Aspect, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, P. Vignolo, and C. I. Westbrook, Phys. Rev. A 52, 4704 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

C. G. Aminoff, A. M. Steane, P. Bouyer, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3083 (1993).C. V. Saba, P. A. Barton, M. G. Boshier, I. G. Hughes, P. Rosenbusch, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 468 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

1980

Aminoff, C. G.

C. G. Aminoff, A. M. Steane, P. Bouyer, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3083 (1993).C. V. Saba, P. A. Barton, M. G. Boshier, I. G. Hughes, P. Rosenbusch, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 468 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, M. R.

M. R. Andrews, M.-O. Mewes, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Science 273, 84 (1996).C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 985 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aspect, A.

A. Landragin, G. Labeyrie, C. Henkel, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, Opt. Lett. 21, 1595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

Bouyer, P.

C. G. Aminoff, A. M. Steane, P. Bouyer, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3083 (1993).C. V. Saba, P. A. Barton, M. G. Boshier, I. G. Hughes, P. Rosenbusch, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 468 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

C. G. Aminoff, A. M. Steane, P. Bouyer, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3083 (1993).C. V. Saba, P. A. Barton, M. G. Boshier, I. G. Hughes, P. Rosenbusch, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 468 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courtois, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Courtois, J.-M. Courty, and S. Reynaud, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1507 (1995); A. Aspect, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, P. Vignolo, and C. I. Westbrook, Phys. Rev. A 52, 4704 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courty, J.-M.

J.-Y. Courtois, J.-M. Courty, and S. Reynaud, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1507 (1995); A. Aspect, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, P. Vignolo, and C. I. Westbrook, Phys. Rev. A 52, 4704 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalibard, J.

C. G. Aminoff, A. M. Steane, P. Bouyer, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3083 (1993).C. V. Saba, P. A. Barton, M. G. Boshier, I. G. Hughes, P. Rosenbusch, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 468 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desbiolles, P.

C. G. Aminoff, A. M. Steane, P. Bouyer, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3083 (1993).C. V. Saba, P. A. Barton, M. G. Boshier, I. G. Hughes, P. Rosenbusch, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 468 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durfee, D. S.

M. R. Andrews, M.-O. Mewes, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Science 273, 84 (1996).C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 985 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henkel, C.

A. Landragin, G. Labeyrie, C. Henkel, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, Opt. Lett. 21, 1595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, R.

A. Landragin, G. Labeyrie, C. Henkel, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, Opt. Lett. 21, 1595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ketterle, W.

M. R. Andrews, M.-O. Mewes, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Science 273, 84 (1996).C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 985 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurn, D. M.

M. R. Andrews, M.-O. Mewes, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Science 273, 84 (1996).C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 985 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Labeyrie, G.

A. Landragin, G. Labeyrie, C. Henkel, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, Opt. Lett. 21, 1595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Landragin, A.

A. Landragin, G. Labeyrie, C. Henkel, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, Opt. Lett. 21, 1595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mewes, M.-O.

M. R. Andrews, M.-O. Mewes, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Science 273, 84 (1996).C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 985 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, W. D.

S. L. Rolston and W. D. Phillips, “Imaging Bose–Einstein condensates:?How destructive is nondestructive imaging?” submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

Reynaud, S.

J.-Y. Courtois, J.-M. Courty, and S. Reynaud, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1507 (1995); A. Aspect, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, P. Vignolo, and C. I. Westbrook, Phys. Rev. A 52, 4704 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolston, S. L.

S. L. Rolston and W. D. Phillips, “Imaging Bose–Einstein condensates:?How destructive is nondestructive imaging?” submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

Silver, J. A.

Steane, A. M.

C. G. Aminoff, A. M. Steane, P. Bouyer, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3083 (1993).C. V. Saba, P. A. Barton, M. G. Boshier, I. G. Hughes, P. Rosenbusch, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 468 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Druten, N. J.

M. R. Andrews, M.-O. Mewes, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Science 273, 84 (1996).C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 985 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vansteenkiste, N.

A. Landragin, G. Labeyrie, C. Henkel, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, Opt. Lett. 21, 1595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, C. I.

A. Landragin, G. Labeyrie, C. Henkel, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, Opt. Lett. 21, 1595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Opt. Lett.

A. Landragin, G. Labeyrie, C. Henkel, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, Opt. Lett. 21, 1595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Bjorklund, Opt. Lett. 5, 15 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

J.-Y. Courtois, J.-M. Courty, and S. Reynaud, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1507 (1995); A. Aspect, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, P. Vignolo, and C. I. Westbrook, Phys. Rev. A 52, 4704 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. G. Aminoff, A. M. Steane, P. Bouyer, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3083 (1993).C. V. Saba, P. A. Barton, M. G. Boshier, I. G. Hughes, P. Rosenbusch, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 468 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

M. R. Andrews, M.-O. Mewes, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Science 273, 84 (1996).C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 985 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

P. Berman, ed., Atom Interferometry (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997).

S. L. Rolston and W. D. Phillips, “Imaging Bose–Einstein condensates:?How destructive is nondestructive imaging?” submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experiment. A cloud of cold atoms fell through a far detuned probe laser beam. The FM spectroscopy setup shown was sensitive to the phase shift induced by the atoms on the laser beam. To monitor the effect of the dispersive probe, we placed a second probe beam below the first.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical time-of-flight signals after an average of 20 shots. (a) The nondestructive signal. The power in the dispersive probe was 4 µW and, during this detection, less than 0.2 photon was scattered per atom. (b) The signal obtained with a destructive probe located below the dispersive probe. The two curves were taken simultaneously with both probes present.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Number of atoms detected with the destructive probe as a function of the optical power in the dispersive probe beam (filled circles). Open circles, the data when the dispersive probe was blocked, showing the fluctuations of the number of atoms detected by the destructive probe. The curve is a fit to an exponential decay plus a background. This background is due to the fact that all the atoms did not pass through the dispersive probe, because of the relative sizes of the atomic cloud and the beam.

Equations (3)

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φΔ=-3λ22πΓΔ4Δ2+Γ2ρl=-ΔΓllMFP,
Et=E0 exp-iωLt1+M sinΩt+ψ×expiβsin Ωt+c.c.,
i=KMJ0βcosθ-ψ+MJ0β2φ+-φ-×sinθ-ψ-J1βφ-+φ+-2φ0cosθ.

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