Abstract

A technique named synthesized optical coherence tomography (SOCT) has been proposed and developed as an alternative method to the well-known optical coherence tomography for cross-sectional imaging of scattering objects. SOCT is based on the principle of synthesis of an optical coherence function by use of a tunable laser diode. With stepwise frequency modulation of light and synchronous phase modulation, the coherence function is synthesized into a peak at an arbitrary location. The longitudinal scattering distribution of the object under test is thus obtained without a mechanically driven reference. Two-dimensional tomography was demonstrated in a basic experiment with a lateral mechanical scan.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 19, 590 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Hotate and O. Kamatani, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1701 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Hotate and T. Okugawa, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1247 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Hotate and T. Saida, Electron. Lett. 31, 475 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 22, 340 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. U. Haberland, V. Blazek, and H. J. Schmitt, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 259 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. He and K. Hotate, Proc. SPIE 3541, 248 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. He, N. Mukohzaka, and K. Hotate, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 514 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

U. Haberland, V. Blazek, and H. J. Schmitt, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 259 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. He and K. Hotate, Proc. SPIE 3541, 248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

Z. He, N. Mukohzaka, and K. Hotate, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 22, 340 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Hotate and T. Saida, Electron. Lett. 31, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1993 (1)

K. Hotate and O. Kamatani, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1701 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blazek, V.

U. Haberland, V. Blazek, and H. J. Schmitt, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 259 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chinn, S. R.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 22, 340 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 19, 590 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haberland, U.

U. Haberland, V. Blazek, and H. J. Schmitt, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 259 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, Z.

Z. He and K. Hotate, Proc. SPIE 3541, 248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. He, N. Mukohzaka, and K. Hotate, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 19, 590 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hotate, K.

Z. He and K. Hotate, Proc. SPIE 3541, 248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. He, N. Mukohzaka, and K. Hotate, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate and T. Saida, Electron. Lett. 31, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate and T. Okugawa, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1247 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate and O. Kamatani, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1701 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishii, H.

H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J. A.

Kamatani, O.

K. Hotate and O. Kamatani, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1701 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kano, F.

H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukohzaka, N.

Z. He, N. Mukohzaka, and K. Hotate, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okugawa, T.

K. Hotate and T. Okugawa, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1247 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Owen, G. M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saida, T.

K. Hotate and T. Saida, Electron. Lett. 31, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, H. J.

U. Haberland, V. Blazek, and H. J. Schmitt, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 259 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 22, 340 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 19, 590 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanobe, H.

H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tohmori, Y.

H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikuni, Y.

H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Hotate and T. Saida, Electron. Lett. 31, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. He, N. Mukohzaka, and K. Hotate, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

U. Haberland, V. Blazek, and H. J. Schmitt, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 259 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

K. Hotate and O. Kamatani, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1701 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate and T. Okugawa, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1247 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

Z. He and K. Hotate, Proc. SPIE 3541, 248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of the SOCT system: ISO, optical isolator; PC’s, polarization controllers; PM, phase modulator; PD’s, photodetectors; AOM’s, acousto-optic modulators; SSG-DBR-LD, superstructure grating distributed Bragg reflector laser diode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Synthesis and scanning of the coherence function with a delta-functionlike shape. The 0th peak is used.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental result of a synthesized delta-functionlike coherence peak.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental result of SOCT: (a) schematic of the scattering sample, (b) tomogram of 100 longitudinal scans×100 data points.

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γz=sinNπ2fsz/c-fsκN sinπ2fsz/c-fsκN12fsz/c-fsκ=m02fsz/c-fsκm,

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