Abstract

Thermal fixing in a La3Ga5SiO14:Pr3+ photorefractive crystal is demonstrated all the way down to room temperature. This, to our knowledge, is the first report of such an effect in any photorefractive material. From the temperature dependence of the process the activation energy of the carriers involved in the fixing process is measured to be EA=0.89 eV. Further, an effective photorefractive charge density of 1.4±0.2×1016 cm-3 and Debye screening length of 6.8±0.7×10-6 cm is measured.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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T. Nikolajsen, P. M. Johansen, X. Yue, D. Kip, and E. Krätzig, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

B. I. Sturman, M. Carrascosa, F. Agolló-Lopez, and J. Limeres, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12792 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Buse, S. Breer, K. Peithmann, S. Kapphan, M. Gao, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. B 56, 1225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Lande, S. Orlov, A. Akella, L. Hesselink, and R. Neugaonkar, Opt. Lett. 22, 1722 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

C. Dam-Hansen, P. M. Johansen, and V. M. Fridkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2003 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1993

1990

1989

V. Fridkin, A. Kaminskii, V. Lazarev, S. Astaf’ev, and A. Butashin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 545 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. Arizmendi, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 423 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

R. Matull and R. A. Rupp, J. Phys. D 21, 23 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983

A. Kaminskii, B. Mill, G. Khodzhabagyan, A. Konstantinova, A. Okorochkov, and I. Silvestrova, Phys. Status Solidi 80, 387 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1974

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, and K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 155 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Agolló-Lopez, F.

B. I. Sturman, M. Carrascosa, F. Agolló-Lopez, and J. Limeres, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12792 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Akella, A.

Amodei, J. J.

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Arizmendi, L.

Astaf’ev, S.

V. Fridkin, A. Kaminskii, V. Lazarev, S. Astaf’ev, and A. Butashin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 545 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Batirov, T.

Breer, S.

K. Buse, S. Breer, K. Peithmann, S. Kapphan, M. Gao, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. B 56, 1225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Buse, K.

K. Buse, S. Breer, K. Peithmann, S. Kapphan, M. Gao, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. B 56, 1225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Butashin, A.

V. Fridkin, A. Kaminskii, V. Lazarev, S. Astaf’ev, and A. Butashin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 545 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Carrascosa, M.

L. Arizmendi, E. de Miguel-Sanz, and M. Carrascosa, Opt. Lett. 23, 960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Sturman, M. Carrascosa, F. Agolló-Lopez, and J. Limeres, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12792 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dam-Hansen, C.

C. Dam-Hansen, P. M. Johansen, and V. M. Fridkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2003 (1996).
[CrossRef]

de Miguel-Sanz, E.

Djalalov, R.

Dubovik, E.

Fridkin, V.

V. Fridkin, A. Kaminskii, V. Lazarev, S. Astaf’ev, and A. Butashin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 545 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fridkin, V. M.

C. Dam-Hansen, P. M. Johansen, and V. M. Fridkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2003 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gao, M.

K. Buse, S. Breer, K. Peithmann, S. Kapphan, M. Gao, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. B 56, 1225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Glass, A. M.

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, and K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 155 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Guenter, P.

Hesselink, L.

Johansen, P. M.

T. Nikolajsen, P. M. Johansen, X. Yue, D. Kip, and E. Krätzig, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, P. M. Johansen, E. Dubovik, T. Batirov, and R. Djalalov, Opt. Lett. 23, 1164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Dam-Hansen, P. M. Johansen, and V. M. Fridkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2003 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A.

V. Fridkin, A. Kaminskii, V. Lazarev, S. Astaf’ev, and A. Butashin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 545 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaminskii, B. Mill, G. Khodzhabagyan, A. Konstantinova, A. Okorochkov, and I. Silvestrova, Phys. Status Solidi 80, 387 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kapphan, S.

K. Buse, S. Breer, K. Peithmann, S. Kapphan, M. Gao, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. B 56, 1225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khodzhabagyan, G.

A. Kaminskii, B. Mill, G. Khodzhabagyan, A. Konstantinova, A. Okorochkov, and I. Silvestrova, Phys. Status Solidi 80, 387 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kip, D.

T. Nikolajsen, P. M. Johansen, X. Yue, D. Kip, and E. Krätzig, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Konstantinova, A.

A. Kaminskii, B. Mill, G. Khodzhabagyan, A. Konstantinova, A. Okorochkov, and I. Silvestrova, Phys. Status Solidi 80, 387 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Krätzig, E.

T. Nikolajsen, P. M. Johansen, X. Yue, D. Kip, and E. Krätzig, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Buse, S. Breer, K. Peithmann, S. Kapphan, M. Gao, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. B 56, 1225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lande, D.

Lazarev, V.

V. Fridkin, A. Kaminskii, V. Lazarev, S. Astaf’ev, and A. Butashin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 545 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Leyva, V.

Li, C.

Limeres, J.

B. I. Sturman, M. Carrascosa, F. Agolló-Lopez, and J. Limeres, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12792 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matull, R.

R. Matull and R. A. Rupp, J. Phys. D 21, 23 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mill, B.

A. Kaminskii, B. Mill, G. Khodzhabagyan, A. Konstantinova, A. Okorochkov, and I. Silvestrova, Phys. Status Solidi 80, 387 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Montemezzani, G.

Neugaonkar, R.

Nikolajsen, T.

T. Nikolajsen, P. M. Johansen, X. Yue, D. Kip, and E. Krätzig, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, P. M. Johansen, E. Dubovik, T. Batirov, and R. Djalalov, Opt. Lett. 23, 1164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okorochkov, A.

A. Kaminskii, B. Mill, G. Khodzhabagyan, A. Konstantinova, A. Okorochkov, and I. Silvestrova, Phys. Status Solidi 80, 387 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Orlov, S.

Peithmann, K.

K. Buse, S. Breer, K. Peithmann, S. Kapphan, M. Gao, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. B 56, 1225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rakuljic, G.

Rodgers, K. F.

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, and K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 155 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rupp, R. A.

R. Matull and R. A. Rupp, J. Phys. D 21, 23 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Silvestrova, I.

A. Kaminskii, B. Mill, G. Khodzhabagyan, A. Konstantinova, A. Okorochkov, and I. Silvestrova, Phys. Status Solidi 80, 387 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Staebler, D. L.

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Sturman, B. I.

B. I. Sturman, M. Carrascosa, F. Agolló-Lopez, and J. Limeres, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12792 (1997).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, and K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 155 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Yue, X.

T. Nikolajsen, P. M. Johansen, X. Yue, D. Kip, and E. Krätzig, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zgonik, M.

Zhang, D.

Zhang, Y.

Zhu, Y.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, and K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 155 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, P. M. Johansen, X. Yue, D. Kip, and E. Krätzig, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971).
[CrossRef]

C. Dam-Hansen, P. M. Johansen, and V. M. Fridkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2003 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Fridkin, A. Kaminskii, V. Lazarev, S. Astaf’ev, and A. Butashin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 545 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

L. Arizmendi, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 423 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. D

R. Matull and R. A. Rupp, J. Phys. D 21, 23 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

B. I. Sturman, M. Carrascosa, F. Agolló-Lopez, and J. Limeres, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12792 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Buse, S. Breer, K. Peithmann, S. Kapphan, M. Gao, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. B 56, 1225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi

A. Kaminskii, B. Mill, G. Khodzhabagyan, A. Konstantinova, A. Okorochkov, and I. Silvestrova, Phys. Status Solidi 80, 387 (1983).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dynamics of creation, development, and erasure of fixed holograms in a LGS crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Arrhenius plot of the temperature dependence of the time constant τc. From the linear dependence a protonic activation energy of 0.89 eV is found. The inset illustrates thermal fixing at room temperature. Leaving the crystal in the dark for 20 h and illuminating the crystal with homogeneous off-Bragg illumination result in an increase in diffraction efficiency originating from the development process of the fixed grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal development in diffraction efficiency when the direction of photovoltaic current (at t=0) is changed during homogeneous illumination. The fixed grating in this case is formed during writing at 63 °C, explaining the relatively high diffraction efficiency of the fixed grating compared with that for postwriting fixing shown in Fig. 1.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

jpvx=α11I cos2β,
τc-1=ωi,
τs-1=ωiK2RD21+K2RD2,

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