Abstract

We report what are to our knowledge the first observation and characterization of quadratic spatial solitons in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN). Using a Nd:YAG (1064-nm) source, we observed self-trapped solitary-wave propagation over more than six diffraction lengths as a result of the cascaded quadratic nonlinear process. Low-threshold operation (5-kW peak power) was measured for the quasi-phase-matched PPLN structure designed for frequency doubling.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. N. Karamzin and A. P. Sukhorukov, Sov. Phys. JETP 41, 414 (1976).
  3. G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. A. Amstrong, N. Blombergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Webjorn, V. Pruneri, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, Electron. Lett. 30, 894 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Torner and G. I. Stegeman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3127 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. B. Clausen, O. Bang, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4749 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Torner, in Beam Shaping and Control with Nonlinear Optics, F. Kazjar and R. Reinisch, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1998), p. 236.
  11. A. Buryak, Y. S. Kivshar, and S. Trillo, Opt. Lett. 20, 1961 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. B. Clausen and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 24, 7 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

L. Torner and G. I. Stegeman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Clausen, O. Bang, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. Buryak, Y. S. Kivshar, and S. Trillo, Opt. Lett. 20, 1961 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. Webjorn, V. Pruneri, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, Electron. Lett. 30, 894 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Y. N. Karamzin and A. P. Sukhorukov, Sov. Phys. JETP 41, 414 (1976).

1964 (1)

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

J. A. Amstrong, N. Blombergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Amstrong, J. A.

J. A. Amstrong, N. Blombergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

C. B. Clausen, O. Bang, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barr, J. R. M.

J. Webjorn, V. Pruneri, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, Electron. Lett. 30, 894 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barthelemy, A.

A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Blombergen, N.

J. A. Amstrong, N. Blombergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Buryak, A.

Chiao, R. Y.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Clausen, C. B.

C. B. Clausen and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 24, 7 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Clausen, O. Bang, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ducuing, J.

J. A. Amstrong, N. Blombergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Froehly, C.

A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Garmire, E.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanna, D. C.

J. Webjorn, V. Pruneri, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, Electron. Lett. 30, 894 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Karamzin, Y. N.

Y. N. Karamzin and A. P. Sukhorukov, Sov. Phys. JETP 41, 414 (1976).

Kivshar, Y. S.

C. B. Clausen, O. Bang, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Buryak, Y. S. Kivshar, and S. Trillo, Opt. Lett. 20, 1961 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maneuf, S.

A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Menyuk, C. R.

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pershan, P. S.

J. A. Amstrong, N. Blombergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

J. Webjorn, V. Pruneri, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, Electron. Lett. 30, 894 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

J. Webjorn, V. Pruneri, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, Electron. Lett. 30, 894 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

L. Torner and G. I. Stegeman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sukhorukov, A. P.

Y. N. Karamzin and A. P. Sukhorukov, Sov. Phys. JETP 41, 414 (1976).

Torner, L.

C. B. Clausen and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 24, 7 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Torner and G. I. Stegeman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Torner, in Beam Shaping and Control with Nonlinear Optics, F. Kazjar and R. Reinisch, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1998), p. 236.

Torruellas, W. E.

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Townes, C. H.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Trillo, S.

Van Stryland, E. W.

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webjorn, J.

J. Webjorn, V. Pruneri, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, Electron. Lett. 30, 894 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Webjorn, V. Pruneri, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, Electron. Lett. 30, 894 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. A. Amstrong, N. Blombergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Clausen, O. Bang, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

Y. N. Karamzin and A. P. Sukhorukov, Sov. Phys. JETP 41, 414 (1976).

Other (1)

L. Torner, in Beam Shaping and Control with Nonlinear Optics, F. Kazjar and R. Reinisch, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1998), p. 236.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental beam profiles to outline the observed self-trapping: (a) input pattern, (b) output pattern in the low-intensity regime (diffraction dominates), (c) output pattern at high intensity, showing a two-dimensional spatial solitary wave.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the output beam diameter on the input intensity at 1.064 µm, after normalization to the input size of 22 µm (FWHMI).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the output beam width (normalized to the 22µm input width) on temperature variations for internal input intensities of 0.35 GW/cm2 (circles), 0.7 GW/cm2 (up triangles), 1.3 GW/cm2 (down triangles), and 1.9 GW/cm2 (squares). Perfect phase matching is at 162 °C.

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