Abstract

A mode-mismatched surface thermal-lens technique with pulsed top-hat beam excitation and a near-field detection scheme are developed to measure in situ the thermoelastic response of ultraviolet dielectric coatings to excimer-laser (193- or 248-nm) irradiation. The thermal-lens technique is demonstrated to be not only convenient for accurate determination of the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) but also sensitive to measurement of the thermoelastic response of dielectric coatings irradiated with fluence far below the LIDT, and hence is shown to be appropriate for time-resolved predamage investigation. A minimum detectable surface displacement of approximately 0.002 nm is achieved with a simple experimental configuration. Nonlinear absorption as well as the nonlinear effect in laser conditioning of a LaF3/MgF2 highly reflective dielectric coating are observed for what is believed to be the first time.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Sauerbrey, in Optical and Electro-Optical Engineering Series:?Electro-optics Handbook, R. W. Waynant and M. N. Ediger, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994), Chap. 3.
  2. E. Welsch and D. Ristau, Appl. Opt. 34, 7239 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Kozlowski, Opt. Eng. 36, 251 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. A. Sell, D. M. Heffelfinger, P. Ventzek, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2435 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schäfer, and N. Kaiser, Opt. Eng. 36, 504 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. F. Power, Appl. Opt. 29, 52 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Shen, M. L. Baesso, and R. D. Snook, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3738 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. E. Bialkowski and A. Chartier, Appl. Opt. 36, 6711 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. K. Kuo and M. Munidasa, Appl. Opt. 29, 5326 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Z. L. Wu, P. K. Kuo, Y. S. Lu, and S. T. Gu, Proc. SPIE 2714, 294 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Li and E. Welsch, Appl. Opt. 38, 5241 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Eva, K. Mann, N. Kaiser, B. Anton, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, and E. Hacker, Appl. Opt. 35, 5613 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, and A. Görtler, Proc. SPIE 3578, 83 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Dijon, E. Quesnel, C. Pelle, and R. Thielsch, Proc. SPIE 3578, 54 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (3)

J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, and A. Görtler, Proc. SPIE 3578, 83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Dijon, E. Quesnel, C. Pelle, and R. Thielsch, Proc. SPIE 3578, 54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Li and E. Welsch, Appl. Opt. 38, 5241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

S. E. Bialkowski and A. Chartier, Appl. Opt. 36, 6711 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Kozlowski, Opt. Eng. 36, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schäfer, and N. Kaiser, Opt. Eng. 36, 504 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

J. Shen, M. L. Baesso, and R. D. Snook, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

1989 (1)

J. A. Sell, D. M. Heffelfinger, P. Ventzek, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2435 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Anton, B.

Baesso, M. L.

J. Shen, M. L. Baesso, and R. D. Snook, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bialkowski, S. E.

Blaschke, H.

J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, and A. Görtler, Proc. SPIE 3578, 83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schäfer, and N. Kaiser, Opt. Eng. 36, 504 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, A.

Dijon, D.

D. Dijon, E. Quesnel, C. Pelle, and R. Thielsch, Proc. SPIE 3578, 54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ettrich, K.

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schäfer, and N. Kaiser, Opt. Eng. 36, 504 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eva, E.

Gilgenbach, R. M.

J. A. Sell, D. M. Heffelfinger, P. Ventzek, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2435 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Görtler, A.

J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, and A. Görtler, Proc. SPIE 3578, 83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gu, S. T.

Z. L. Wu, P. K. Kuo, Y. S. Lu, and S. T. Gu, Proc. SPIE 2714, 294 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hacker, E.

Heber, J.

J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, and A. Görtler, Proc. SPIE 3578, 83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heffelfinger, D. M.

J. A. Sell, D. M. Heffelfinger, P. Ventzek, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2435 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Henking, R.

Kaiser, N.

J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, and A. Görtler, Proc. SPIE 3578, 83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schäfer, and N. Kaiser, Opt. Eng. 36, 504 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Eva, K. Mann, N. Kaiser, B. Anton, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, and E. Hacker, Appl. Opt. 35, 5613 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kozlowski, M.

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Kozlowski, Opt. Eng. 36, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, P. K.

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Kozlowski, Opt. Eng. 36, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Wu, P. K. Kuo, Y. S. Lu, and S. T. Gu, Proc. SPIE 2714, 294 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kuo and M. Munidasa, Appl. Opt. 29, 5326 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leinhos, U.

J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, and A. Görtler, Proc. SPIE 3578, 83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

Lu, Y.

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Kozlowski, Opt. Eng. 36, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. S.

Z. L. Wu, P. K. Kuo, Y. S. Lu, and S. T. Gu, Proc. SPIE 2714, 294 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mademann, D.

Mann, K.

Munidasa, M.

Pelle, C.

D. Dijon, E. Quesnel, C. Pelle, and R. Thielsch, Proc. SPIE 3578, 54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Power, J. F.

Quesnel, E.

D. Dijon, E. Quesnel, C. Pelle, and R. Thielsch, Proc. SPIE 3578, 54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raupach, L.

Ristau, D.

Sauerbrey, R.

R. Sauerbrey, in Optical and Electro-Optical Engineering Series:?Electro-optics Handbook, R. W. Waynant and M. N. Ediger, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994), Chap. 3.

Schäfer, D.

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schäfer, and N. Kaiser, Opt. Eng. 36, 504 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sell, J. A.

J. A. Sell, D. M. Heffelfinger, P. Ventzek, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2435 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J.

J. Shen, M. L. Baesso, and R. D. Snook, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Snook, R. D.

J. Shen, M. L. Baesso, and R. D. Snook, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, C.

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Kozlowski, Opt. Eng. 36, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thielsch, R.

D. Dijon, E. Quesnel, C. Pelle, and R. Thielsch, Proc. SPIE 3578, 54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, and A. Görtler, Proc. SPIE 3578, 83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, M.

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Kozlowski, Opt. Eng. 36, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen-Schmidt, P.

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schäfer, and N. Kaiser, Opt. Eng. 36, 504 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ventzek, P.

J. A. Sell, D. M. Heffelfinger, P. Ventzek, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2435 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weissbrodt, P.

Welsch, E.

B. Li and E. Welsch, Appl. Opt. 38, 5241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schäfer, and N. Kaiser, Opt. Eng. 36, 504 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch and D. Ristau, Appl. Opt. 34, 7239 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Z. L.

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Kozlowski, Opt. Eng. 36, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Wu, P. K. Kuo, Y. S. Lu, and S. T. Gu, Proc. SPIE 2714, 294 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. A. Sell, D. M. Heffelfinger, P. Ventzek, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2435 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Shen, M. L. Baesso, and R. D. Snook, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schäfer, and N. Kaiser, Opt. Eng. 36, 504 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Kozlowski, Opt. Eng. 36, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

Z. L. Wu, P. K. Kuo, Y. S. Lu, and S. T. Gu, Proc. SPIE 2714, 294 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, and A. Görtler, Proc. SPIE 3578, 83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Dijon, E. Quesnel, C. Pelle, and R. Thielsch, Proc. SPIE 3578, 54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. Sauerbrey, in Optical and Electro-Optical Engineering Series:?Electro-optics Handbook, R. W. Waynant and M. N. Ediger, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994), Chap. 3.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup: A, variable attenuator; BH, fly’s eye beam homogenizer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical TL signals obtained at different laser fluences from below to above the LIDT for HR dielectric coating LaF3/MaF2 multilayer system on CaF2 substrate at 193 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laser conditioning of the same sample as in Fig. 2, at different laser fluences below the LIDT. Inset, TL signal of the first shot at 0.11 J/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Nonlinear absorption of the same sample at the same position as in Fig. 3, measured after laser conditioning. One data point represents a 100-shot average. Inset, relative absorption against fluence obtained with the 1-on-1 mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

TL signal amplitude versus laser fluence for HR dielectric coating Al2O3/SiO2 multilayer system on quartz substrate at 248 nm. Inset, relative absorption versus fluence below the LIDT.

Equations (1)

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Smax=A2πλ2hmax.

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