Abstract

We report the formation of permanent two-dimensional 12μm waveguides in a bulk strontium barium niobate crystal. The waveguides are made by formation of a photorefractive spatial soliton in which the space-charge field induces ferroelectric domains that are permanently polarized opposite to the crystal c axis. The fixed waveguide propagates light with 80% efficiency. These results make possible the permanent recording of intricate optical circuitry in the volume of a bulk crystal.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Duree, J. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993)Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994)D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995)M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995)M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996)K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. Feigelson, and J. Wilde, J. Opt. Soc. B 14, 3091 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Amodei and D. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971)F. Micheron and G. Bismuth,  20, 79 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Itoh, O. Matoba, and Y. Ichioka, Opt. Lett. 19, 652 (1994)O. Matoba, K. Kuroda, and K. Itoh, Opt. Commun. 145, 150 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987)J. Rosen, Opt. Lett. 19, 369 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Peda’el, A. Bekker, M. Horowitz, and B. Fischer, in Photorefractive Materials, Effects and Devices (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1995), p. 550A. Bekker, A. Peda’el, N. K. Berger, M. Horowitz, and B. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3121 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. In SBN:75, r33 is so large that 500 V/cm can support a soliton. For fixing purposes, this field cannot cause domain reversal, since it is lower than the coercive field at room temperature. We have therefore accumulated an (internal) screening field, as described in the text. In principle, one can use steady-state screening solitons for fixing at slightly elevated temperature, ?35°C.
  12. M. Horowitz, A. Bekker, and B. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2619 (1993)A. S. Kewitsch, M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, T. Towe, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1174 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. Millar, J. S. Aitchinson, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3224 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1627 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. Feigelson, and J. Wilde, J. Opt. Soc. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Millar, J. S. Aitchinson, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1627 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995)M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996)K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994)D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995)M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Itoh, O. Matoba, and Y. Ichioka, Opt. Lett. 19, 652 (1994)O. Matoba, K. Kuroda, and K. Itoh, Opt. Commun. 145, 150 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

M. Horowitz, A. Bekker, and B. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2619 (1993)A. S. Kewitsch, M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, T. Towe, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1174 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993)Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987)J. Rosen, Opt. Lett. 19, 369 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

J. Amodei and D. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971)F. Micheron and G. Bismuth,  20, 79 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Aitchinson, J. S.

Amodei, J.

J. Amodei and D. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971)F. Micheron and G. Bismuth,  20, 79 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bekker, A.

M. Horowitz, A. Bekker, and B. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2619 (1993)A. S. Kewitsch, M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, T. Towe, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1174 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Peda’el, A. Bekker, M. Horowitz, and B. Fischer, in Photorefractive Materials, Effects and Devices (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1995), p. 550A. Bekker, A. Peda’el, N. K. Berger, M. Horowitz, and B. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3121 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. Feigelson, and J. Wilde, J. Opt. Soc. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Crosignani, B.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995)M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996)K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994)D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995)M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993)Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Sterke, C. M.

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1627 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiPorto, P.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995)M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996)K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994)D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995)M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993)Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duree, G.

G. Duree, J. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993)Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durnin, J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987)J. Rosen, Opt. Lett. 19, 369 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eberly, J. H.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987)J. Rosen, Opt. Lett. 19, 369 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1627 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feigelson, R.

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. Feigelson, and J. Wilde, J. Opt. Soc. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

M. Horowitz, A. Bekker, and B. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2619 (1993)A. S. Kewitsch, M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, T. Towe, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1174 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Peda’el, A. Bekker, M. Horowitz, and B. Fischer, in Photorefractive Materials, Effects and Devices (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1995), p. 550A. Bekker, A. Peda’el, N. K. Berger, M. Horowitz, and B. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3121 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, M.

M. Horowitz, A. Bekker, and B. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2619 (1993)A. S. Kewitsch, M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, T. Towe, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1174 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Peda’el, A. Bekker, M. Horowitz, and B. Fischer, in Photorefractive Materials, Effects and Devices (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1995), p. 550A. Bekker, A. Peda’el, N. K. Berger, M. Horowitz, and B. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3121 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ichioka, Y.

Itoh, K.

Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

Kennedy, G. T.

Krug, P. A.

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1627 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. Feigelson, and J. Wilde, J. Opt. Soc. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marquez-Aguilar, P. A.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Matoba, O.

Miceli, J. J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987)J. Rosen, Opt. Lett. 19, 369 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millar, P.

Mitchell, M.

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. Feigelson, and J. Wilde, J. Opt. Soc. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neurgaonkar, R.

G. Duree, J. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993)Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peda’el, A.

A. Peda’el, A. Bekker, M. Horowitz, and B. Fischer, in Photorefractive Materials, Effects and Devices (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1995), p. 550A. Bekker, A. Peda’el, N. K. Berger, M. Horowitz, and B. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3121 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995)M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996)K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993)Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sánchez-Mondragón, J. J.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. Feigelson, and J. Wilde, J. Opt. Soc. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995)M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996)K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994)D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995)M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993)Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, E.

G. Duree, J. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993)Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, M.

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. Feigelson, and J. Wilde, J. Opt. Soc. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995)M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996)K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shultz, J.

G. Duree, J. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993)Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sibbett, W.

Sipe, J. E.

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1627 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slusher, R. E.

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1627 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staebler, D.

J. Amodei and D. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971)F. Micheron and G. Bismuth,  20, 79 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

Stepanov, S.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995)M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996)K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994)D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995)M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, A.

Vysloukh, V.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wilde, J.

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. Feigelson, and J. Wilde, J. Opt. Soc. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994)D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995)M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993)Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Amodei and D. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971)F. Micheron and G. Bismuth,  20, 79 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. Horowitz, A. Bekker, and B. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2619 (1993)A. S. Kewitsch, M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, T. Towe, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1174 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995)M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996)K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Opt. Soc. B (1)

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. Feigelson, and J. Wilde, J. Opt. Soc. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1627 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993)Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Other (2)

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[CrossRef]

In SBN:75, r33 is so large that 500 V/cm can support a soliton. For fixing purposes, this field cannot cause domain reversal, since it is lower than the coercive field at room temperature. We have therefore accumulated an (internal) screening field, as described in the text. In principle, one can use steady-state screening solitons for fixing at slightly elevated temperature, ?35°C.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Horizontal and vertical intensity profiles of the soliton beam and a beam guided in the fixed waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FWHM of the intensity of a beam at the exit of a fixed 2D waveguide (filled circles) and the intensity transmitted through the waveguide as a function of time. Inset, corresponding hysteresis curve of the formation of a fixed waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Formation of a fixed waveguide: (a) the applied field is screened, (b) the applied field is brought to 0, (c) the domains flip by 180°, and (d) the bound charge generates the space-charge field that forms the waveguide. The arrows indicate the direction of the crystalline polarization.

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