Abstract

We investigate the use of infrared femtosecond laser pulses to induce highly localized refractive-index changes in fused-silica glasses. We characterize the magnitude of the change as a function of exposure and measure index changes as large as 3×10-3 and 5×10-3 in pure fused silica and boron-doped silica, respectively. The potential of this technique for writing three-dimensional photonic structures in bulk glasses is demonstrated by the fabrication of a Y coupler within a sample of pure fused silica.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. See, for example, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. See, for example, K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. See, for example, X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994); B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995); M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. M. Davis, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, R. Herrmann, F. Noack, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 62, 293 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T.-H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, Opt. Lett. 21, 2023 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. A. Squier and M. Müller, “Third-harmonic generation imaging of laser-induced breakdown in glass,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
  10. J. H. Strickler and W. W. Webb, Opt. Lett. 16, 1780 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Witzgall, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, V. Doan, and B. J. Schwartz, Opt. Lett. 23, 1745 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 22, 132 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. P. Joshi, H. E. Pudavar, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, and B. A. Reianhardt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 170 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. See, for example, R. R. Alfano, ed., The Supercontinuum Laser Source (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. C. Allan, C. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, and T. P. Seward, Opt. Lett. 21, 1960 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. C. Allan, C. Smith, and N. F. Borrelli, “Excimer laser-induced densification in binary silica glasses,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

1999

M. P. Joshi, H. E. Pudavar, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, and B. A. Reianhardt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 22, 132 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

See, for example, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1994

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994); B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995); M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

Allan, D. C.

D. C. Allan, C. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, and T. P. Seward, Opt. Lett. 21, 1960 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Allan, C. Smith, and N. F. Borrelli, “Excimer laser-induced densification in binary silica glasses,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Ashkenasi, D.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, R. Herrmann, F. Noack, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 62, 293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J. F.

See, for example, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bernage, P.

See, for example, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

D. C. Allan, C. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, and T. P. Seward, Opt. Lett. 21, 1960 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Allan, C. Smith, and N. F. Borrelli, “Excimer laser-induced densification in binary silica glasses,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Callan, J. P.

Campbell, E. E. B.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, R. Herrmann, F. Noack, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 62, 293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cordier, P.

See, for example, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Delevaque, E.

See, for example, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Doan, V.

Dong, L.

See, for example, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

See, for example, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Du, D.

See, for example, X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994); B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995); M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finlay, R. J.

Glezer, E. N.

Her, T.-H.

Herrmann, R.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, R. Herrmann, F. Noack, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 62, 293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

See, for example, K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, L.

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, M. P.

M. P. Joshi, H. E. Pudavar, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, and B. A. Reianhardt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Korn, G.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994); B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995); M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

See, for example, X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994); B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995); M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maruo, S.

Mazur, E.

Meltz, G.

See, for example, K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Milosavljevic, M.

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

See, for example, X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994); B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995); M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, M.

J. A. Squier and M. Müller, “Third-harmonic generation imaging of laser-induced breakdown in glass,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Nakamura, O.

Niay, P.

See, for example, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Noack, F.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, R. Herrmann, F. Noack, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 62, 293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poignant, H.

See, for example, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poumellec, B.

See, for example, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

M. P. Joshi, H. E. Pudavar, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, and B. A. Reianhardt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pudavar, H. E.

M. P. Joshi, H. E. Pudavar, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, and B. A. Reianhardt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qui, J.

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reianhardt, B. A.

M. P. Joshi, H. E. Pudavar, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, and B. A. Reianhardt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, R. Herrmann, F. Noack, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 62, 293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, B. J.

Seward, T. P.

Smith, C.

D. C. Allan, C. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, and T. P. Seward, Opt. Lett. 21, 1960 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Allan, C. Smith, and N. F. Borrelli, “Excimer laser-induced densification in binary silica glasses,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Squier, J.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994); B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995); M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squier, J. A.

J. A. Squier and M. Müller, “Third-harmonic generation imaging of laser-induced breakdown in glass,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Strickler, J. H.

Sugimoto, N.

Swiatkiewicz, J.

M. P. Joshi, H. E. Pudavar, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, and B. A. Reianhardt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taunay, T.

See, for example, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Varel, H.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, R. Herrmann, F. Noack, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 62, 293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vrijen, R.

Webb, W. W.

Witzgall, G.

Xie, W. X.

See, for example, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

Appl. Phys. A

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, R. Herrmann, F. Noack, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 62, 293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994); B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995); M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Joshi, H. E. Pudavar, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, and B. A. Reianhardt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

See, for example, X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

See, for example, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

See, for example, R. R. Alfano, ed., The Supercontinuum Laser Source (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Allan, C. Smith, and N. F. Borrelli, “Excimer laser-induced densification in binary silica glasses,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

J. A. Squier and M. Müller, “Third-harmonic generation imaging of laser-induced breakdown in glass,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity profile of the light as it exits the waveguide in the pure fused-silica sample. The inset is the two-dimensional image of the profile. For this case the waveguide was formed with 1µ J laser pulses and by scanning of the sample at 20 µ m/s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Y coupler drawn in a bulk sample of pure fused silica guiding 514.5-nm light from an argon-ion laser. The scattered radiation from the coupled argon-ion light is observed in the photograph. The vertical direction is magnified with respect to the horizontal direction for clarity. The structure was drawn at a pulse energy of 1 µ J and a scan speed of 30 µ m/s.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Index Changes Δn×10-3 in Boron-Doped (Left) and Pure (Right) Fused Silica for Various Energies and Scan Speedsa

Metrics